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مجارستان نشانه های اختصاری
مجارستان (به مجاری: Magyarország)کشوری است در اروپای مرکزی. پایتخت آن بوداپست است. مساحت آن ۹۳۰۳۰ کیلومتر مربع است.

محتویات
تاریخ

تاریخ مهاجرت قوم مجار به جلگه دانوب دقیقاً معلوم نیست. این قوم به‌صورت قبایلی به‌تدریج از آسیا و نواحی غربی سیبری به این سرزمین آمده و پس از زدوخوردهای فراوان با دیگر قبایل برای تصاحب اراضی پربرکت سرانجام در جلگه دانوب بین نژادهای ژرمن و اسلاو حائل گردیده‌اند. این تاریخ را حدود سال ۸۹۶م. می‌دانند، یعنی زمانی‌‌که قبایل مجار به رهبری پرنس آرناپه ساکن حوزه کارپات (سرزمینی که از لحاظ آب و مراتع غنی بوده) را تماماً و یا به‌طور وسیعی تصرف کردند و امروز به‌نام «مجارستان» و «ترانسیلوانیا» خوانده می‌شود.


حوزه کارپات که از لحاظ جغرافیایی در مرکز اروپا واقع شده از دوران ماقبل تاریخ توسط بشر اولیه اشغال شده بود. مردم دوران اولیه عصر آهن و به‌دنبال آن سلتها به‌نوبت در شروع دورهٔ حاضر توسط رومی‌ها شکست خوردند. ایالات رومی پانونیا و داسیا که در زمان حکومت تیبریوس و تراجان به‌تصرف درآمده بودند، دربرگیرنده قسمتی از آنچه مجارستان می‌شد بودند. پس از چهار قرن فرمانروایی رومی‌ها به‌واسطه مهاجرت عظیمی منقرض گردید. هونها به رهبری پادشاه معروف خود آتیلا که آلمانی‌الاصل بود، آستروگوتها ژپیدها و لونگوبارها و به‌دنبال آن‌ها آوارها که از نژاد هون‌ها بودند برای زمان کوتاهی در این مکان سکنی گزیدند.



با انقراض امپراتوری آوار به‌دست شارل ماگن، تنها گروه‌های کوچکی از آوارها در درهٔ رود دانوب باقی ماندند. وضعیت اجتماعی و اقتصادی این مردمان تقریباً هم‌سطح مجاری‌های غالب بود و به‌همین علت باعث همزیستی و بعدها جذب شدن آن‌ها توسط مردم مجار می‌گردید.


در قرن دهم هفت قبیله فاتح مجار که با هم متحد بودند تحت رهبری پرنس آرپاد مؤسس اولین سلسله مجار قرار داشتند و قدرت را به فرزندش کیزاسپرو سپردند. در سال ۹۷۲ گیزا به‌عنوان یکی از سران قبایل مجار به ریاست اتحادیه‌ای که از این قبایل به‌وجود آمده بود انتخاب شد و به اتفاق همسرش سارولت به آئین مسیحیت گروید و پس از وی فرزندش استوان اول که در تاریخ مجارستان نسبت به سن استفان (استفان مقدس) (۱۰۳۸ -۹۹۷) شهرت دارد در سال ۱۰۰۰م. به‌عنوان نخستین پادشاه مجارستان تاج‌گذاری کرد. وی که در کودکی غسل تعمید داده شده بود بعد از تحکیم حکومت خود به‌عنوان اولین پادشاه مجارستان مسئله مسیحی کردن مجارها را رسمیت بخشید و به تأسیس صومعه و بنا‌نهادن کلیسا اقدام کرد. سن استفان برای استقرار نظام پادشاهی و پی‌ریزی یک نظم اجتماعی پایدار کوشش‌های فراوانی نمود و مردم را مجبور کرد از آیین جاهلانه قدیمی به‌سمت مسیحیت بگروند.


در اواخر قرن ۱۱ کلیسا استفان اول را به ‌خاطر خدمات وی به مقدس ملقب نمود. وی دو مجموعه عقاید برای اداره امور کشور تنظیم کرد. وی پادشاهی جنگجو بود. در جنگی که با «کنراد» امپراتور ژرمن نمود وی را شکست داد و تا حوالی وین پیشروی کرد، و به‌علت ثروت سرشار حاصل از جنگ دانوب، خطر همسایگان اعم از امپراطوری ژرمن و بیزانس وجود داشت. مجارها نخست با بیزانس از در دوستی درآمدند و پس از شکست ژرمن‌ها در سال ۱۱۰۸ که با غلبه بر سپاهیان هانری پنجم در پوترن به‌دست آمد از جانب ژرمن‌ها آسوده‌خاطر گشتند. در سال ۱۱۸۱ با استقرار بلغارها و تشکیل دولت بلغار مرز مشترک مجارستان و بیزانس از بین رفت و خطر دوم که متوجه مجارها بود منتفی گشت. در قرن ۱۲ قدرت حکومت مرکزی رو به زوال نهاد و با رشد فئودالیسم قدرت سیستم ملوک‌الطوایفی افزایش یافت. از زمان مرگ استفان اول یک دوره ناامنی شروع شد که طی آن شورش نجیب‌زادگان پیرو مذهب قدیمی پاگان، اصلاحات اجتماعی و مذهبی پادشاه را به مخاطره انداخت. در هر حال این شورش فرونشانده شد و حملات آلمان‌ها از غرب و کومان‌ها از شرق سرکوب گردید.


طی قرون ۱۱ و ۱۲ پادشاهان سلسله «آرپاد» مجارستان را یک‌پارچه نگه داشته و در مقابل سیاست‌های توسعه‌طلبانه امپراتوری مقدس روم، قسطنطنیه و پاپ در رم مبارزه نمودند. سرانجام پیشرفت نسبتاً صلح‌آمیز مجارها در قرون وسطی با حمله مغول‌ها به رهبری پاتوخان در سال‌ها (۴۴ - ۱۲۴۱) دچار وقفه شد و ارتش مجارستان شاه بلدی چهارم به‌سختی توسط مغول‌ها تارومار شد.


اوج شکوه و عظمت هنگری در قرون وسطی روزگار سلطنت لوئی اول (بزرگ) (۸۲ - ۱۳۴۲) بود؛ زیرا نفوذش تا دریای بالتیک، دریای سیاه، دریای مدیترانه می‌رسید. جنگ با ترک‌ها در سال ۱۳۸۹ صورت گرفت و ترک‌ها تا دریای بالکان پیش رفتند و مدت‌های دراز هنگری در چنگال ترکان عثمانی و قسمتی از خاک مجارستان زیر فرمان جابرانه خانواده‌ها هابسبورگ اطریش گرفتار بود.


این سیاست حفظ قدرت مرکزی توسط «ماتیوس هون‌یادی» (۱۴۹۰ - ۱۴۵۸) که از پادشاهان بسیار محبوب و موفق بود دنبال گردید. با مهار کردن قدرت بارون‌ها و تشکیل یک ارتش قوی اجیر شده، وی امنیت و آسایش برای مردم شهر و روستا را به ارمغان آورد، در حالی‌که سیاست خارجی توسعه‌طلبانه وی موجب هراس بود مع‌هذا دربار با شکوه و کتابخانه عظیم گرونسیانا برای وی در سرتاسر اروپا شهرت آفرید. جانشینان شاه ماتیوس در هر حال قادر نبودند که با قدرت رو به افزایش بارون‌ها مقابله کنند. افزایش فشار روستاییان موجب گردید که تخم نارضایتی در میان آنان کاشته شود؛ به‌طوری‌که در سال ۱۵۱۴ منجر به جنگ دهقانی بزرگی به رهبری گیورگ دوژا از اهالی ترانسیلوانیا گردید. به‌هرحال ارتش دهقانی با نبردهای خونینی از هم پاشید و شکست آن منجر به کیفر خونینی برای دهقانان گردید. در این شرایط تهدید ترک‌ها برای اشغال کشوری که به‌دلیل اختلافات داخلی از هم پاشیده شده بود یک خطر جدی به‌شمار می‌آمد. در سال ۱۵۲۶ ارتش بزرگ سلطان سلیمان دوم قوای شاه جوان لوتیز دوم را در «نبرد موهاچ» نابود کرد.

تقسیمات کشوری



شهرستان‌های مجارستان
مجارستان از ۱۹ شهرستان تشکیل شده‌است به علاوه بوداپست که متعلق به هیچ شهرستانی نیست و مستقل است.شهرهای مهم مجارستان شامل دبرسن، میشکولتس، سگد، پچ و گیور هستند.

سیاست



پارلمان مجارستان در بوداپست
رئیس جمهوری از بین اعضای مجمع ملی برای یک دوره پنج ساله برگزیده می‌شود.مقام او تا حدود زیادی تشریفاتی است و اما بصورت اسمی وی فرمانده رئیس نیروهای مسلح و دارای قدرت‌های از جمله نامزدی برای نخست وزیری است که که باید توسط اکثریت آرای اعضای پارلمان، بر پایه پیشنهاد ارائه شده توسط خود رئیس جمهوری انتخاب شود.

جغرافیا

همسایگان مجارستان
مرزهای مجارستان کنونی پس از پایان جنگ جهانی اول و فروپاشی امپراطوری اتریش-مجارستان تثبیت شد. در شمال هم‌مرز است با جمهوری اسلواکی با مرز مشترک ۵۱۵ کیلومتر.

در شرق آن کشور رومانی با مرز مشترک ۴۴۳ کیلومتر قرار دارد.

در شمال‌شرقی مجارستان جممهوری اوکراین با مرز ۱۰۳ کیلومتری قرار دارد.

در جنوب هم‌مرز است با جمهوریهای پیشین یوگوسلاوی (صربستان ۱۵۱کیلومتر، کرواسی ۳۲۹ کیلومتر، اسلوونی ۸۲ کیلومتر).

در غرب مجارستان کشور اتریش با مرز ۳۶۶ کیلومتری جای گرفته‌است.



مردم

کل جمعیت مجارستان بالغ بر ۱۰٬۳۱۳٬۸۸۳ نفر (سازمان ملل متحد ۱۹۹۵) است. ۸۸٪ جمعیت کشور از مجارها تشکیل شده و دیگر تیره‌های ساکن این کشور رومانیایی‌ها، صربها، کرواسی‌ها، آلمان‌ها، و شمار نسبتاً زیادی از کولی‌ها هستند. مطالعات ژنتیکی نشان داده است که مجارها فقط 13 درصد از ژن‌های اقوام اورالی را دارا هستند. زبان رسمی مجارستان مجاری است. ۷۰٪ مردم مسیحی کاتولیک و ۲۵٪ پروتستان میاشند.این کشور زمستانهای سردی داشته و تابستانها، درجه حرارت دشتهای مرکزی، افزایش شدیدی دارد. معادن بوکسیت بسیار غنی در این کشور، شناسایی شده و به بهربرداری رسیده است. نیمی از صادرات مجارستان را ماشین آلات کشاورزی، ابزار مهندسی و غلات و ماشینهای صنعتی تشکیل می‌دهند.

فرهنگ

شاندر پتوفی
نگارخانه تصاویر


شمشیر و تاج مقدس مجارستان


سپر تاریخی مجارها


بالاتون


هورتوباگی


قلعه سومگ


نمایی از بالاتون


قلعه واسونیکو


نمایی از بوداپست


دریاچه ماهیگیری نزدیک پوتنوک


قلعه فوزر
پانویس

↑ Géza
↑ Sarolta
↑ István
↑ St. Stephen
↑ Konrad
↑ Dózsa György
↑ Genetic structure in relation to the history of Hungarian ethnic groups
در ویکی‌انبار پرونده‌هایی دربارهٔ مجارستان موجود است.
این یک نوشتار خُرد پیرامون یک مکان جغرافیایی است. با گسترش آن به ویکی‌پدیا کمک کنید.

ن • ب • و
اروپا

ن • ب • و
کشورهای عضو اتحادیه اروپا

ن • ب • و
سازمان پیمان آتلانتیک شمالی (ناتو)
رده‌های صفحه: مجارستان جمهوری‌هاکشورهای اروپاییکشورهای عضو اتحادیه کشورهای عضو سازمان ملل متحدکشورهای عضو ناتو کشورهای محصور در خشکی لیبرال دموکراسی
قس عربی
الجمهوریة المجریة (بالمجریة: Magyar Köztársaság) هی دولة أوروبیة محصورة تقع فی حوض الکاربات فی وسط أوروبا. تحدها شمالاً سلوفاکیا ویبلغ طول الحدود حوالی 515 کم، وتحد أوکرانیا بـ103 کم فی الشمال الشرقی، وتحد رومانیا بـ 443 کم من الشرق، ومن الجنوب تحد کرواتیا بـ 329 کم صربیا وسلوفینیا بـ 102 کم، کما تحد النمسا بـ 336 کم من الغرب. المجر دولة محصورة لا تملک منفذ على البحر، وتحیط بها الیابسة من کل الجهات. تغطی الأراضی المجریة مساحة 93,030 کم2، وتتأثر بمناخ قاری، مما یجعلها تحل فی المرتبة 109 الأکبر مساحة فی العالم. طبیعة المجر تتکون بشکل عام من سهول منبسطة إلى سهول منحدرة من حوض الکاربات، مع وجود هضاب وجبال منخفضة فی الشمال على طول الحدود السلوفاکیة. حسب إحصاء مایو 2010 فإن عدد سکان المجر حوالی 10,005,000 نسمة. فتحل المجر فی المرتبة 83 الأکثر تعدادًا سکانیًا فی العالم. تبلغ الکثافة السکانیة فی المجر حوالی 107.7/کم2 مما یجعلها فی المرتبة 94 الأعلى کثافة سکانیة فی العالم.
تعاقبت العدید من الدول والممالک على الأراضی المعروفة الیوم باسم المجر مثل الکلت والرومان، وحتى بودابست عاصمة المجر کانت مستوطنة کلتیة، کما أصبحت عاصمة ومرکزاً للمحافظة الرومانیة المعروفة باسم بانونیا السفلى (Lower Pannonia). ویعود تاریخ ظهور المجر بهذا الاسم یعود إلى العصور الوسطى المبکرة، عندما استوطن المجریون حوض بانونیا، وهو شعب یعود أصله إلى وسط وشمال ما یسمى الآن روسیا.
استمرت مملکة المجر لما یقارب 946 سنة، وکانت تعتبر واحدة من المراکز الثقافیة فی العالم الغربی عند نقاط مختلفة. وبعد 150 عاما من الاحتلال العثمانی الجزئی للمجر الذی إبتدأ من سنة 1541 إلى سنة 1699، ضُمًّت المجر إلى إمبراطوریة هازبرغ (Habsburg Empire). ثم تشکلت دولة ضمت المجر والنمسا وقد عرفت باسم الإمبراطوریة النمساویة المجریة، وکانت من القوى العظمى فی العالم حتى نهایة الحرب العالمیة الأولى، حیث خسرت المجر 70% من أراضیها، بالإضافة إلى ثلث سکانها الذین ینتمون إلى العرقیة المجریة، وذلک ضمن معاهدة تریانون التی عاقبت المجر على دروها فی الحرب العالمیة الأولى. وقد انتقلت المجر بعد الحرب إلى الحقبة الشیوعیة التی استمرت بین عامی 1947 و1989.
بعد سقوط الشیوعیة عام 1989 تحولت المجر إلى جمهوریة دیمقراطیة. وقوة اقتصادیة ذات دخل مرتفع. وهی عضو فی الناتو والاتحاد الأوروبی.
محتویات
أصل التسمیة

تعرف أیضاً بهنغاریا، والمجر سمیت بهذا الاسم نسبه إلى قبیلة مجر التی هاجرت من سیبیریا واستوطنت عام 896 ملمصدر.
التاریخ

مقال تفصیلی :تاریخ المجر
ما قبل التاریخ
مقال تفصیلی :المجر ما قبل التاریخ
من القرن التاسع قبل المیلاد إلى نهایة القرن الرابع المیلادی، کانت بانونیا جزءا من الإمبراطوریة الرومانیة، بما فی ذلک المنطقة التی تعرف الیوم باسم المجر فی. وفی وقت لاحق وصل الهون، الذین أسسوا إمبراطوریة قویة. بعد حکم الهون سکنت فی حوض الکاربات قبائل جرمانیة کالقوط، واللومباردیون والآفار. استقر المجریون بقیادة أرباد فی حوض الکاربات منذ عام 895.ووفقاً لبعض اللغویین فإنهم کانوا یتحدثون لغة من عائلة اللغة الفنلندیة الأوغریة، وهی لغة أورالیة موطنها الأصلی فی روسیا بین نهر الفولغا وجبال الأورال.
العصور الوسطى
مقال تفصیلی :المجر فی العصور الوسطى


معرکة Lechfeld
المجر هی واحدة من أقدم البلدان فی أوروبا، التی أنشئت فی 895، وذلک قبل تقسیم فرنسا وألمانیا أو توحید الممالک الأنجلوسکسونیة. فی البدایة، کانت إمارة المجر النامیة دولة تتألف من شعب أفراده شبه رحل. ومع ذلک أنجزت المجر تحولاً هائلاً، وتحولت إلى دولة مسیحیة خلال القرن العاشر. هذه الدولة کانت تعمل بشکل جید، ولها قوة عسکریة فی البلاد تسمح للمجریین بإجراء الغارات والحملات العسکریة على مختلف مناطق أوروبا من القسطنطینیة إلى مناطق بعیدة کإسبانیا. فی وقت لاحق هزمت المجر فی معرکة Lechfeld سنة 955 وقد وضعت هذه المعرکة حداً لمعظم الحملات المجریة التی کانت تشن على الأراضی الأجنبیة. سلالة أرباد (بالمجریة: Árpád-ház) کانت السلالة الحاکمة لإتحاد القبائل المجریة فی القرنین 9 - 10، ومملکة المجر. وسمیت السلالة باسم "أرباد"، وهو الأمیر الذی کان رئیسا لإتحاد القبائل المجریة عندما إحتل المجریون حوض الکاربات سنة 895. وقد حاول الأمیر المجری غیزة (Géza) دمج المجر مع الدول المسیحیة فی أوروبا الغربیة.. أصبح ساینت ستیفان الأول (بالمجریة: I. István magyar király) - وهو ابن الأمیر غیزة - أول ملکٍ فی المجر بعد عراک طویل مع عمه کوبانی (Koppány)، وتحولت المجر إلى مملکة کاثولیکیة رسولیة.
مملکة المجر
مقال تفصیلی :مملکة المجر


حدود مملکة المجر فی وسط أوروبا
نشأت مملکة المجر فی شرق أوروبا وضمت ضمن حدودها کل من وسلوفاکیا وترانسیلفانیا وکرواتیا وشمال صربیا إضافة إلى المناطق الحالیة للمجر، وقد أصبحت أمبراطوریة یوم عید المیلاد لسنة 1000، تحت ملکها ستیفن من أسرة أرباد وتعرضت عام 1241 للغزو المغولی الذی أضعفها وإنتهت الأسرة عام 1301، وعاشت فترات متذبذبة من القوة والضعف حتى أواخر القرن الخامس عشر المیلادی. وسیطر العثمانیون على معظمها من أوائل القرن السادس عشر إلى أواخر القرن السابع عشر.
الحروب العثمانیة
مقال تفصیلی :المجر العثمانیة
مقال تفصیلی :معرکة موهاج


جنود أتراک فی المجر العثمانیة
وبحلول القرن السادس عشر، زادت قوة الدولة العثمانیة تدریجیا، فإحتلت العدید من الأراضی فی منطقة البلقان. فی حین کانت مملکة المجر ضعیفة حیث تعانی من انتفاضات الفلاحین، کما حدثت العدید من الانشقاقات الداخلیة بین أفرد طبقة النبلاء فی عهد لویس الثانی (1516-1526). حدثت معرکة موهاج فی 29 أغسطس 1526 م، وهی معرکة وقعت بین الدولة العثمانیة والمجر. وکان یقود قوات العثمانیین الخلیفة سلیمان القانونی أما المجریون فکان یقودهم الملک لویس الثانی. قُدر عدد جنود الجیش العثمانی بحوالی 100 ألف جندی وعدد من المدافع و800 سفینة، بینما قدر عدد جنود المجر بحوالی 200 ألف مقاتل. أدى انتصار العثمانیین فی هذه المعرکة إلى إحکام سیطرتهم على المجر وفتح عاصمتها بودابست والقضاء على ما کان یعرف باسم مملکة المجر. وقد عانى العثمانیون کثیرا بعد فتح المدینة من غارات المسیحیین المتتالیة علیها. مکث سلیمان القانونی فی المدینة ثلاثة عشر یومًا ینظم شئونها، وعین جان "زابولی" أمیر ترانسلفانیا ملکًا على المجر التی أصبحت تابعة للدولة العثمانیة، وعاد السلطان إلى عاصمة بلاده بعد أن دخلت المجر للدولة العثمانیة وتقلص نفوذ الملک الإسبانی. حتى هذا الیوم، یعتبر المجریون هزیمتهم فی هذه المعرکة شؤما علیهم ونقطة سوداء فی تاریخهم. على الرغم من انقضاء أکثر من 400 عام إلا أن هناک مثل شائع لدى المجریین «أسوأ من هزیمتنا فی موهاکس» ویضرب عند التعرض لحظ سیء.
الحرب العالمیة الأولى
مقال تفصیلی :المجر فی الحرب العالمیة الأولى


فیلق جبلی تابع للإمبراطوریة النمساویة المجریة.
کانت الإمبراطوریة النمساویة المجریة وألمانیا تشکلان أهم دول المرکز فی الحرب العالمیة الأولى (1914 - 1919). النتائج السلبیة للحرب أدت إلى إعلان جمهوریة المجر عام 1918 والغراف میهالی کارولی (Károlyi) رئیساً لها. استطاع الشیوعیین والاشتراکیین الوصول إلى السلطة فی العام المقبل ولکنها لم یصمدوا طویلاً، حیث اقتحم الجیش الوطنی بقیادة الأدمیرال میکلوش هورتی العاصمة واحتل مقار الحکومة. وقعت المجر اتفاق سلام تریانون فی باریس عام 1920، الذی أدى إلى فقدان البلاد 67% من أراضیها و 58% من سکانها لصالح الدول المجاورة وخاصة رومانیا وتشیکوسلوفاکیا.
انتخب میکلوش هورتی وصیا لعرش المملکة فی نفس العام (إلى عام 1944). الوضع الاقتصادی الداخلی والعالمی السیء فی هذه الحقبة زاد من شعبیة الیمینیین فی البلاد. دخلت هنغاریا الحرب العالمیة الثانیة فی نهایة عام 1940 إلى جانب دول المحور. ساعدت القوات الألمانیة فی هجماتها على یوغوسلافیا والاتحاد السوفیاتی. لاحقاً حاولت هنغاریا مفاوضة الحلفاء سراً لإنهاء الحرب. احتل الجیش الألمانی مواقع عدة حساسة بالبلاد ونصب سیاسیین موالین. استولى الجیش الأحمر على هنغاریا عام 1945، بعد معارک طاحنة وخاصة حول العاصمة بودابست، التی سُلمت شبه مُدمرة تماماً فی 13 فبرایر 1945. بعد ذلک دخلت البلاد فی حقبة شیوعیة تحت السیطرة السوفییتیة إلى عام 1990. إعلان الجمهوریة الشعبیة فی 1949 واندلاع انتفاضة عام 1956 هی أهم أحداث هذه الفترة. الانتفاضة الشعبیة أطاحت بالحکومة وشلت البلاد لمدة أسبوعین لحین تدخل القوات السوفییتیة وتعیین یانوس کادار (Kádàr) رئیساً للحزب الشیوعی المجری، الذی تمکن فی وقت قصیر من استعادة زمام الأمور ومحاکمة رموز الانتفاضة. کان کادار أهم شخصیة سیاسیة بالبلاد لمدة 32 عاماً. بدأت عملیة الإصلاح السیاسی عام 1988 مع بدء انهیار الاتحاد السوفیتی. فاز المنتدى الدیمقراطی بقیادة جوزیف انتال (Antall) بانتخابات عام 1990 الحرة. بدأت المجر عام 1990 مفاوضات مع الإتحاد السوفیتی.
الحرب العالمیة الثانیة
مقال تفصیلی :المجر خلال الحرب العالمیة الثانیة
مقال تفصیلی :حصار بودابست


آثار الدمار فی بودابست
کانت المملکة المجریة هی إحدى دول المحور خلال الحرب العالمیة الثانیة وقد شارکت فی غزو یوغسلافیا ووغزو الاتحاد السوفییتی عام 1941، کما استفادت المجر من علاقتها مع ألمانیا النازیة وإیطالیا فی الحصول على المزید من الأراضی من جیرانها فی سلوفاکیا ورومانیا ویوغسلافیا.
خلال غزو الإتحاد السوفییتی دخلت المجر فی المفاوضات سریة للسلام مع الولایات المتحدة والمملکة المتحدة. وبعد أن اکتشف هتلر أمر المفاوضات إعتبرها خیانة، فهاجمت القوات الألمانیة المجر عام 1944 وإحتلتها. وعندما بدأت القوات السوفیتیة تهدد المجر، وقع میکلوش هورتی هدنة بین المجر وروسیا. لکن قوات الکوماندوس الألمانیة إختطفت ابن هورتی بعد فترة وجیزة ،مما إضطره لإلغاء الهدنة مع روسیا. ثم أطیح به من السلطة، فی حین أن زعیم الفاشیة المجریة فرنک سالاسی (بالمجریة: Ferenc Szálasi) شکل حکومة جدیدة بدعم ألمانی. 29 أکتوبر، بدأ الجیش الأحمر الهجوم على بدوابست. أکثر من 1,000,000 مقاتل أنقسموا إلى مجموعتین وقاموا بمناورات ثم أسرعوا إلى المدینة. الخطة کانت قطع بودابست عن باقی القوات الألمانیة والمجریة. فی 7 نوفمبر 1944، دخلت القوات السوفییتیة الضاحیة الشرقیة لبودابست، التی تبعد 20 کیلو مترا عن المدینة القدیمة. فی 19 دیسمبر، بعد وقف ضروری للعملیة، اعاد الجیش الأحمر هجومه من جدید. فی 26 دیسمبر، الطریق الذی یربط بودابست بفیینا تم الاستیلاء علیه على ید القوات السوفییتیة. وبذلک طوقت المدینة. ونتیجة للحصار السوفییتی، 33,000 جندی ألمانی و37,000 جندی مجری، بالإضافة إلى 800,000 مواطن، أصبحوا محجوزین فی بودابست. ورفض قرار الانسحاب، القائد الألمانی أدولف هتلر أعلن بأن بودابست مدینة حصنیة، ویجب الدفاع عنها حتى سقوط أخر جندی.وأصبح کارل ویلدنبرتش هو المسؤول عن الدفاعات فی المدینة. کانت بودابست هدف أساسی جوزیف ستالین، فی اتفاقیة یالطة أراد ستالین إظهار قوته أمام تشرشل ووروزفلت. ولذلک، أمر الجنرال رودیون مالینوفسکی بالسیطرة على المدینة بأسرع وقت. فی 29 دیسمبر 1944، بعث مالینوفسکی مرتین شروط نقاش الاستسلام بشروط. المبعون لم یعودوا بعدها. وأعتبر السوفییت هذا الفعل رفض للمفاوضات وقامت القوات بحصار المدینة. الهجوم السوفییتی بدأ فی الضواحی الشرقیة للعاصمة، والدخول من خلال بست، شکل نقطة التحول فی تسریع العملیة. قامت قوات الدفاع من الالمان والمجر، بإبطاء الاندفاع السوفییتی وتحویله إلى زحف، فقامت بالانسحاب وقللت خطوطها عسى أن تجد الأسبقیة فی البیئة الجبلیة لبودا. وفی ینایر 1945، أطلق الألمان هجوماً مکوناً من ثلاثة اجزاء وعرف هذا الهجوم باسم عملیة کونراد. عملیة کونراد کانت جهد ألمانی-مجری لتخفیف الحصار عن بودابست. وانطلقت العملیة (کونراد 1) فی 1 ینایر، حیث هاجم الفیلق الألمانی اس اس بانزر الرابع منطلقا من مدینة تاتا خلال منطقة کثیفة التلال شمال بودابست فی جهد لکسر الحصار السوفیتی وبالتزامن مع هذا الهجوم قامت قوات الـ Waffen-SS بضرب غرب بودابست فی محاولة لکسب فائدة تکتیکیة. فی 3 ینایر أرسل الأمر السوفیتی أربعة تقسیمات اضافیة لملاقاة التهدید.أدى هذا الفعل السوفیتی إلى توقف الهجوم بالقرب من Bicske. فی 12 ینایر أُجبرت القوات الألمانیة على الانسحاب. فی 7 ینایر اطلق الألمان عملیة کونراد 2. هاجم فیلق ال اس اس بانزر الرابع من Esztergom باتجاة مطار بودابست حاول الالمان الاستیلاء على المطار لتحسین التجهیز الجوی للمدینة. تعثر هذا الهجوم بالقرب من المطار. فی 17 ینایر انطلق الجزء الأخیر من عملیة کونراد - عملیة کونراد3. هاجم فیلق ال اس اس بانزر الرابع وفیلق البانزر الثالث من جنوب بودابست وحاول تطویق عشرة تشکیلات سوفیتیة. محاولة التطویق بائت بالفشل. من جهة أخرى حرب المدن فی بودابست ازدادت حدتها.وأصبحت التجهیزات عاملا حاسما بسبب خسارة مطار Ferihegy قبیل بدء الحصار فی 27 دیسمبر 1944 وحتى 9 ینایر 1945. کانت القوات الألمانیة قادرة على استخدام بعض الشوارع الرئیسیة وکذلک موقف خاص ملاصق لقلعة بودا باعتبارها مناطق لهبوط الطائرات والطائرات الشراعیة على الرغم من انها کانت تحت نیران المدفعیة السوفیتیة المستمر.قبل أن یتجمد نهر الدانوب بعض الامدادات تمکنت من العبور تحت غطاء الظلام والضباب. بنهایة الحرب فقدت المجر ما یقارب من 300,000 جندی فیما بلغت أعداد الضحایا من المدنیین حوالی 80,000 قتیل، تعرضت العدید من المدن المجریة للتدمیر لاسیما العاصمة بودابست.
الثورة المجریة
مقال تفصیلی :الثورة المجریة 1956


نصب تذکاری خارج مبنى البرلمان المجری فی بودابست لأولئک الذین توفوا أثناء الثورة
وجدت ثورة معادیة للسوفیت فی المجر، عرفت باسم الثورة المجریة أو الانتفاضة المجریة دامت من 23 أکتوبر إلى 4 نوفمبر 1956. هیأت التغیرات السیاسیة بعد الستالینیة فی الإتحاد السوفیتی، والحرکات القومیة للأحزاب الاشتراکیة فی أوروبا الشرقیة، والاضطراب الاجتماعی بسبب الأحوال الاقتصادیة السیئة لعامة المجریین الظروف لظهور انتفاضة شعبیة فی أکتوبر/تشرین الأول عام 1956. فی عام 1945، أثناء الحرب العالمیة الثانیة، قدم الروس لتحریر المجر من النازیین، ولکن عندما سیطر الشیوعیون فی عام 1949، أصبح التحریر هیمنة، وأصبحت الحکومة المجریة بالکامل تحت السیطرة السوفیتیة. توفی الدکتاتوری السوفیتی جوزیف ستالین قبل ثلاثة سنوات من ذلک؛ وفی مارس/آذار 1956، کان نیکیتا خروتشوف ضد ستالین فی کونجرس الحزب العشرین. بقیادة الطلاب والعمّال، بدأت الثورة المجریة التلقائیة. شعر السوفییت بأنهم قد یفقدون السیطرة فی المجر، لذا أرسلوا إلیها دباباتهم وقواتهم. قاوم مقاتلو التحریر المجریین بشدة، ولکنهم انهزموا مع حلول 4 نوفمبر. فی عام 1989 مع سقوط حائط برلین، انهار الاتحاد السوفیتی أخیراً. کانت الثورة المجریة من أول الأخطار الصریحة للنظام السوفیتی. حینما ذهبت القوات السوفیتیة إلى بودابست فی 24 أکتوبر، حمل المجریون السلاح للدفاع عن النفس. رد إیمری ناج على النداءات المطالبة بإلقاء الأسلحة واستسلم بوعد من العفو. لکن الجماهیر المجریة رفضت الثقة بناج. تظاهروا بأنهم لا یثقون بأحد سوى أنفسهم. فی 25 أکتوبر بدأ العمال بإضراب عام. خلال عدة أیام، تحشد کامل البلاد ضد البیروقراطیة الحاکمة والقوات السوفیتیة. بدأ العمال المجریون بتنظیم أنفسهم للمحافظة على النظام ولتوزیع المأکل والملبس. المجالس، وهی أجزاء من قوى العمال، کانت مشابهة لتلک التی بنیت من قبل العمال الروس فی عام 1917. وقد أبدوا إصرارهم لانهاء الانتهاکات البیروقراطیة، والامتیازات، وسوء الإدارة. تبنى الدستور مجلس عمال بودابست الأعظم فی 31 أکتوبر 1956، وهو یصور عمق هذا الکفاح لدیمقراطیة العمال. یذکر الدستور بأن "المصانع تعود للعمال". مهام مجلس العمال، کما اشترط الدستور، تضمنت التالی: "موافقة وتصدیق کل المشاریع التی تتعلق بالاستثمار؛ وإقرار مستویات الأجر الأساسیة والطرق التی تقام بها؛ وإقرار کل الأمور التی تتعلق بالعقود والائتمان الأجنبی؛ وتوظیف وإقالة العمال المستخدمین فی المشروع؛ وفحص المیزانیات وإقرار استعمال الأرباح". بخلاف مقولات الحرکة الستالینیة الدولیة حول الثورة المجریة 1956، العمال المجریون لم یطلبوا إعادة الرأسمالیین وعلاقات الملکیة الرأسمالیة. من بین آلاف القرارات التی تبنتها مجالس العمال، لا یوجد قرار یدعو إلى تجرید الجنسیة للمصانع والمزارع. العمال المجریون رفضوا الستالینیة وجمیع الرموز البیروقراطیة المشابهة. لکنهم لم یرفضوا جوهر البرنامج الاشتراکی: الرقابة السیاسیة والاقتصادیة للطبقة العاملة تبدى خلال منظمتهم الرسمیة الخاصة. منذ البدایة حاول ناج خدمة البیروقراطیة السوفیتیة والعمال. ولکن انتهى به الأمر بعدم الرضاء من قبل الطرفین. نداءاته المتواصلة إلى العمال لنزع أسلحتهم لم تحظى بأی رد. ولکن وضع القوة الثنائیة التی ظهرت فی البلاد لم تسمح بأیة من التسویات. عندما أعلن ناج تحت الضغط الجماهیر فی 1 نوفمبر انحلال الحزب الستالینی الحاکم وحیاد المجر من حلف وارسو، کان ذلک کثیراً على البیروقراطیة السوفیتیة. فی 4 نوفمبر، بدأ الهجوم الثانی على بودابست. ولکن هذا الوقت، سحبت البیروقراطیة السوفیتیة قواتها المستعملة فی الهجوم الأول لأنهم أصبحوا "مصابین بروح التمرد" ولذا کانوا "عدیمی الثقة". عوضاً عن ذلک، جلبت قوات سوفیتیة جدیدة للمواجهة النهائیة. حینما اقتربت الدبابات السوفیتیة، استقالت معظم حکومة ناج. لجأ ناج ومؤیدوه إلى السفارة الیوغوسلافیة. ترک ناج السفارة الیوغوسلافیة بعدما أعطى تأمینات للعبور الآمن، ولکنه اعتقل من قبل الشرطة السریة أعدم بعد سنتین بتهمة الخیانة العظمى.
لعدة أسابیع، قاوم العمال المجریون أسلحة القوات السوفیتیة. نظمت مجالس العمال المقاومة وقامت بهجوم ناجح فی 11 دیسمبر، ولکن قوة الدبابات السوفیتیة والشرطة السریة اکتسحتا العمال المجریین فی النهایة.
المجر الشیوعیة
بعد سقوط ألمانیا النازیة، احتلت القوات السوفیتیة کل الأراضی المجریة. حتى تحولت المجر تدریجیا إلى ولایة شیوعیة فی الإتحاد السوفیتی. بعد عام 1948، أنشأ الزعیم الشیوعی ماتیاس راکوزی (بالمجریة: Mátyás Rákosi) حکماً ستالینیاً فی البلاد، واضطر لإنشاء اقتصاد مخطط. وأدى هذا إلى حدوث الثورة المجریة عام 1956. إنسحبت المجر من حلف وارسو. لکن الإتحاد السوفیتی أکثر من 150,000 جندی و2500 دبابة.. ما یقرب من ربع ملیون شخص غادروا البلاد خلال فترة وجیزة فی الوقت الذی فتحت فیه الحدود سنة 1956. أصبح یانوش کادار زعیم الحزب الشیوعی. فی عام 1991 إنتهى الوجود العسکری السوفیتی فی المجر وبدأ التحول إلى اقتصاد السوق.
التقسیمات الإداریة

تقسم المجر إلى سبع مناطق منذ 1966. ولکن إداریا تقسم المجر إلى 19 مقاطعة وإضافة إلى ذلک العاصمة المجریة بودابست. تقسم المقاطعات الـ19 إلى 173 مقاطعة تحتیة وبودابست تملک مقاطعتها التحتیة الخاصة.
المناطق السبع
غربی ترانسدانوبیا
جنوبی ترانسدانوبیا
مرکز ترانسدانوبیا
مرکز المجر (تتضمن العاصمة بودابست)
شمال السهل العظیم
جنوب السهل العظیم
المقاطعات الـ19
باکس-کسکن
برانیا
بیکیس
بورسد-أباوج-زمبلن
کسونغراد
فیجیر
غیور-موسون-سبرون
هاجدو-بیهار
هیفیز
جاس-ناغیکن-زلنوک
کوماروم-إزترغون
نوغراد
بیست
سوموغی
سابولکس-ساتمار-بیریغ
تلنا
فاس
فزبرم
زالا
بودابست (العاصمة، لیست من المقاطعات الـ19)
الجغرافیا

طبیعة المجر تتکون بشکل عام من سهول منبسطة إلى سهول منحدرة من حوض الکاربا، مع وجود هضاب وجبال منخفضة فی الشمال على طول الحدود السلوفاکیة. قمة کیکیس هی أعلى قمة جبلیة، یبلغ ارتفاعها 1014 متر فوق سطح البحر. نهر الدانوب هو أهم أنهار المجر، الذی یقسم البلاد إلى جزئین غربی وشرقی. من الأنهار المهمة الأخرى: نهر تیزا ونهر درافا. یحتوی الجزء الغربی على بحیرة بالاتون. بحیرة هیفیز، الواقعة فی المجر، هی أکبر بحیرة میاه معدنیة فی العالم. بحیرة تایس هی ثانی أکبر بحیرة فی حوض الکاربا، کما تعتبر أیضا أکبر بحیرة صناعیة فی أوروبا.
المساحة
تبلغ مساحة المجر حوالی 93 ألف کم مربع. لیس للبلاد منفذ على البحر، حیث أنها تقع فی وسط شرق أوروبا، محاطة بسبع دول. یبلغ طول الحدود مع کل منها کالآتی: النمسا (366 کم)، سلوفاکیا (515 کم)، أوکرانیا (103 کم)، رومانیا (443 کم)، صربیا (151 کم)، کرواتیا (329 کم)، سلوفینیا (102 کم).طبیعة المجر تتکون بشکل عام من سهول منبسطة إلى سهول منحدرة من حوض الکاربات، مع وجود هضاب وجبال منخفضة فی الشمال على طول الحدود السلوفاکیة. قمة کیکیس هی أعلى قمة جبلیة، یبلغ ارتفاعها 1014 متر فوق سطح البحر.
أنهار
نهر الدانوب هو أهم أنهار المجر، الذی یقسم البلاد إلى جزئین غربی وشرقی. من الأنهار المهمة الأخرى: نهر تیزا ونهر درافا.
البحیرات
یحتوی الجزء الغربی على بحیرة بالاتون. بحیرة هیفیز، الواقعة فی المجر، هی أکبر بحیرة میاه معدنیة فی العالم. بحیرة تایس هی ثانی أکبر بحیرة فی حوض الکاربا، کما تعتبر أیضا أکبر بحیرة صناعیة فی أوروبا.
دیموغرافیا

مقال تفصیلی :دیموغرافیا المجر
السکان


التغیر السکانی للمجر بین عامی 1715-2008
الإثنیات فی المجر
(إحصاء 2001)
مجریون

94.4%
غجر

2.02%
ألمان
1.18%
سلوفاک
0.38%
إثنیات أخرى

2.02%
بلغ التعداد السکانی للمجر حوالی 9,905,596 نسمة سنة 2009. وبذلک تحل فی المرتبة 83 بین دول العالم. الکثاقة السکانیة فی المجر تبلغ حوالی 107.7 کم2، مما یجعل المجر تحل فی المرتبة 109 عالمیاً الأعلى کثافة سکانیة.
حوالی 15% من سکان المجر أعمارهم أصغر من 14 عاماً ویتوزعون على (ذکور: 763,553. إناث: 720,112)، وحوالی 69.3% من السکان أعمارهم بین 15-64 عاماً (ذکور: 3,384,961. إناث: 3,475,135). الذین یبلغون من العمر 65 عاماً أو أکثر تبلغ نسبتهم حوالی 15.8% یتوزعون على (ذکور: 566,067. إناث: 995,768)
یبلغ معدل الموالید 9.90 مولود لکل 1,000 نسمة، کمل یبلغ معدل الوفیات 12.94 حالة وفاة لکل 1,000 نسمة. کما أن معدل الخصوبة الکلی یبلغ حوالی 1.35.
المدن والمناطق الحضریة
مقال تفصیلی :قائمة مدن المجر


بودابست

دبرتشن

سِغِد
الترتیب المدینة المقاطعة عدد السکان سکان المنطقة الحضریة عرض · نقاش · تعدیل

مشکولتس

بیتش

جیور

نیرجیهازا
1 بودابست بودابست 1,721,556 2,503,205
2 دبرتسن هایدو-بیهار 207,270 237,888
3 سغد تشونغراد 169,731 201,307
4 مشکولتس بورسود-آبائوی-زمبلن 169,226 216,470
5 بیتش بارانیا 157,680 179,215
6 جیور دیور-موشون-سوبرون 130,478 182,776
7 نیرجیهازا سابولتش-ساتمار-بریغ 117,832 -
8 کتشکمت باتش-کیسکون 112,233 -
9 سکشفهرفار فییر 101,973 -
10 سومباتهای فاس 79,513 -
11 سولنوک یاس-نادکون-سولنوک 74,885 -
12 تاتابنیا کوماروم-إسترکوم 70,333 -
13 کابوشفار شومود 67,633 -
14 بکیشتشابا بکیش 64,787 -
15 إرد بشت 63,669 -
16 فسبرم فسبرم 63,405 -
17 زالائغرسغ زالا 61,774 -
18 سوبرون دیور-موشون-سوبرون 59,036 -
19 إغیر هفش 56,429 -
20 ندکانیجا زالا 50,540 -
الدین
مقال تفصیلی :الدین فی المجر
مقال تفصیلی :الحریة الدینیة فی المجر
الرومانیة الکاثولیکیة هی حتى الآن أکبر دین فی البلاد على الرغم من أن الکنیسة الکاثولیکیة لم تعد دین الدولة الرسمی. یعرف 51.9 % من المجریین أنفسهم رومان کاثولیک. تتفاوت نسبة من یعتقدون بوجود الله، ومن لا یعتقدون به فی المجر. وفقاً لأحدث استطلاع قام به یوروبارومیتر 2005:
أجاب 44 % من المواطنین المجریین بأنهم یؤمنون بوجود الله.
أجاب 31 % أنهم یعتقدون أن هناک نوعاً من الروح أو قوة الحیاة.
أجاب 19 % أنهم لا یعتقدون أن هناک إله أو أی نوع من الروح أو قوة الحیاة.
المسیحیة
مقال تفصیلی :المسیحیة فی المجر
الرومانیة الکاثولیکیة
مقال تفصیلی :الرومانیة الکاثولیکیة فی المجر
الطوائف المسیحیة الأخرى
مقال تفصیلی :البروتستانتیة فی المجر
الدیانات الأخرى
المسیحیة الشرقیة (الاقباط المصریین الأرثوذکس)
اللغة
مقال تفصیلی :لغة مجریة


مخطوط مجری تاریخی کتب عام 1195
.


خریطة المجر والمناطق الناطقة بالمجریة
اللغة الرسمیة ولغة أکثر سکان المجر هی اللغة المجریة (Magyar Nyelv)، وتنتمی اللغة المجریة إلى مجموعة اللغات الأوغریة، وهذه المجموعة تنتمی إلى عائلة اللغات الأورالیة. وتضم عائلة اللغات الأورالیة اللغات الفنلندیة والإستونیة وهی لغات قریبة من اللغة المجریة. یتحدث اللغة المجریة حوالی 14.5 ملیون شخص کلغة أم، من ضمن هؤلاء حوالی 10 ملایین یعیشون فی المجر. حوالی 2.5 ملیون شخص منهم یعیش خارج حدود دولة المجر الحالیة، ولکن فی مناطق کانت تشکل جزءاً من مملکة المجر القدیمة قبل معاهدة تریانون التی قلصت مساحة المجر. وتعیش أکبر مجموعة منهم فی اقلیم ترانسیلفانیا فی النصف الغربی من رومانیا. وتوجد فی سلوفاکیا وصربیا وأوکرانیا مناطق ذات أغلبیة تتحدث باللغة المجریة. کما تتواجد نسبة من الناطقین بالمجریة فی کرواتیا والنمسا وسلوفینیا. وهناک حوالی ملیون متحدث للمجریة ینتشرون ضمن الشتات المجری فی العالم، ففی الولایات المتحدة یعیش حوالی 100,000 ناطق بالمجریة. تعتبر المجریة لغة رسمیة فی المجر والإتحاد الأوروبی، وتصنفها سلوفاکیا وسلوفینیا وصربیا والنمسا کلغة إقلیمیة، کما یوجد اعتراف رسمی من رومانیا وأوکرانیا وکرواتیا باللغة کلغة أقلیة. فی العصور الوسطى المبکرة کانت تکتب المجریة بأبجدیة خاصة بها وهی الأبجدیة المجریة القدیمة (بالمجریة: Magyar rovásírás)، بینما تکتب المجریة الحدیثة بالأبجدیة المجریة وهی أبجدیة لاتینیة تتمیز ببعض الحروف، ولا تستعمل اللغة المجریة الحروف: Q، W، X، Y إلا فی الکلمات الأجنبیة وفی کتابة الأسماء، وإذا حذفت هذه الحروف من الأبجدیة المجریة تکون المجریة تتکون من 40 حرف وهم:

A, Á, B, C, Cs, D, Dz, Dzs, E, É, F, G, Gy, H, I, Í, J, K, L, Ly, M, N, Ny, O, Ó, Ö, Ő, P, R, S, Sz, T, Ty, U, Ú, Ü, Ű, V, Z, Zs

لغات ولهجات أخرى
مقال تفصیلی :لغات المجر
إضافة على اللغة المجریة التی یتحدثها 93.6% من سکان المجر کلغة أم، تتواجد أقلیات تتکلم الألمانیة تترکز فی منطقة جبل میتشسک وما حولها وتاریخیاً کانت اللهجة السوابیة منتشرة فی المجر. والسلوفاکیة المنتشرة فی منطقة الجبال الشمالیة المتوسطة وحول منطقة تشابی (بالمجریة: Békéscsaba). والصربیة بصورة رئیسیة فی جنوب المجر وبالأخص فی منطقة باتشکا (بالمجریة: Bačka) وما حولها. والسلوفینیة حول الحدود مع سلوفینیا غرب المجر. والکرواتیة بشکل أساسی فی جنوب المجر. والرومانیة بصورة رئیسیة فی منطقة جولا (بالمجریة: Gyula) فی غرب المجر. کما تنتشر الرومنیة بین أفراد الأقلیة الغجریة التی تقطن المجر. هناک بعض اللغات الأجنبیة المنتشرة فی المجر بسبب التعلیم، وتتفاوت نسبة إجادة المجریین لهذه اللغات حسب التالی:
اللغة النسبة ملاحظة
المجریة 99.8% هی اللغة الرسمیة الوحیدة فی المجر. وحوالی 93.6% منهم ناطقین بالمجریة کلغة أم، 6.2% یتحدثونها کلغة ثانیة أو لغة أجنبیة.
الألمانیة 10.2% تصنف رسمیاً کلغة أقلیة، تاریخیاً کانت الألمانیة هی أکثر لغة شائعة بین المجریین کلغة ثانیة
الإنجلیزیة 9.8% لغة أجنبیة
لغة روسیة 1.9% لغة أجنبیة
الفرنسیة 1.1% لغة أجنبیة
الرومانیة 0.9% لغة أقلیة، وأکثرهم یقطنون منطقة ترانسیلفانیا
السلوفاکیة 0.6% لغة أقلیة
السیاسة

النظام السیاسی
هنغاریا هی جمهوریة ذات نظام دیمقراطی. تم تحدیث النظام السیاسی بعد سقوط النظام الشیوعی فی هنغاریا فی آواخر الثمانینات. فی 23 أکتوبر 1989 دخل الدستور المعدل حیز التنفیذ. أصبحت الحکومة بموجبه مسائلة أمام البرلمان وکلف رئیس الحکومة بإدارة السیاسة التنفیذیة للبلاد. ینتخب رئیس الدولة من البرلمان لمدة أقصاها خمس سنوات، الذی یتمتع بصلاحیات ومهام فخریة. یسمی رئیس الدولة رئیس الحکومة اعتمادا على نتائج الانتخابات النیابیة، الذی یقوم بدوره باختیار طاقمه الوزاری.
البرلمان الهنغاری
یملک البرلمان الهنغاری أو المجلس الوطنی (بالهنغاریة: the Országgyűlés) حجرة واحدة، یشغل 386 سیاسی مقاعده، یتم انتخابهم کل أربع سنوات فی انتخابات نیابیة عامة. المحکمة الدستوریة، ذو ال 11 عضوا، لها القدرة على تغییر قوانین البرلمان حینما تراها مخالفة لبنود الدستور. منذ عام
1990-1994 حزب MDF
1994-1998 MSZP
1998-2002 FIDESZ
2002-2004 MSZP
2004-2009 MSZP
2010 FIDESZ
السیاسة الخارجیة
شکلت مطالبة هنغاریا بأراضیها السابقة من الدول المجاورة عبئاً ثقیلاً فی علاقات البلاد الخارجیة. هنغاریا هی عضو بالأمم المتحدة منذ عام 1955 وبالاتحاد الأوروبی منذ عام 2004. عضویتها بحلف شمال الأطلسی (الناتو) عام 1999 حلت محل عضویتها فی حلف وارسو عام 1955، وشکلت رسمیاً مدى التحول فی العلاقات الخارجیة.
القوات المسلحة المجریة
مقال تفصیلی :الجیش المجری
هذا القسم فارغ أو غیر مکتمل، مساعدتکم مرحب بها!
السیاحة



منظر نهر الدانوب من أحد المناطق المجریة
تشکل هنغاریا مقصداً للسائح الممیز الذی یبحث على ما انتجته الحضارات التی مرت علیها وترکت بصمات آثارها الفنیة والهندسیة والمعماریة فی مختلف مدنها وبلداتها التی تزخر بالارث الثقافی والفنی الحضاری، ومن یرغب بزیارتها علیه ان یبدأ من العاصمة بودابست، التی یزورها سنویا نحو 30 ملیون سائح من الذین یعرفون قیمة الجمال والطبیعة والحیاة الهادئة.. یتوسطها نهر طویل، وتعتبر أکبر مدن البلاد وهی المرکز السیاسی، والاقتصادی والصناعی ویستطیع السائح الوصول إلیها بسهولة عبر وسائل المواصلات المختلفة بسبب موقعها فی قلب أوروبا واشتراکها فی الحدود مع سبع الدول، بالإضافة إلى مرور نهر الدانوب منها.. یقطن بودابست حوالی ملیونی نسمة ما یشکل خمس سکان البلاد، وتنقسم المدینة إلى قسمین: بودا، وبست یفصلهما نهر الدانوب ویرتبطان بنحو تسعة جسور أقدمها وأهمها جسر "السلسلة" الذی یعطی المدینة سحرا خاصا.
التعلیم فی المجر

حتى وقت قریب، کان التعلیم فی المجر الإلزامی من سن 6 حتی 16. منذ سبتمبر 1998،ومدة التعلیم الإلزامی هو 12 عاما. حضور ریاض الأطفال فقط إلزامی من سن 5 : خلال العام الأخیر فی ریاض الأطفال، یتم إعداد الأطفال للمدرسة. یتم توفیر التعلیم الأساسی فی هنغاریا من قبل المدرسة (الابتدائی) العامة، خلال دورتین من 4 سنوات. حضور الأطفال العام (الابتدائی) المدرسة حتى سن 14، وبعد ذلک یجب علیهم أن یختاروا مدرسة أخرى. بعد التغیرات الاقتصادیة والاجتماعیة وفیما یتعلق تناقص عدد التلامیذ، فی التسعینات تمت إعادة هیکلة نظام التعلیم فی المجر. نتیجة للتغیرات، بعض المدارس (الابتدائی) والمدارس الثانویة العامة وفرت فترات تعلیم أطول أو أقصر من السابق. یتلقى الطلاب مجموعة واسعة من الفرص، مثل المدارس الثانویة العامة (الجمباز)تبدأ التعلیم لفترات 6 أو 8 سنین إلى جانب الدورات التقلیدیة التی تستمر لأربع أعوام. جعلت هذه الأنواع الجدیدة من المدارس من الممکن ان یختار الشخص مدرسة حتى لو کان بعمر 10 أو 12. وفضل فی البدایة هذین النوعین من المدارس. ومع ذلک، فی نهایة التسعینات، کان مقتصرا على نشر لوائح جدیدة. ونتیجة لذلک، لاتقدم هذه المدارس فی الوقت الحاضر سوى جزء صغیر من التعلیم الثانوی.
الاقتصاد والبنیة التحتیة

اتبعت المجر منذ التغییر السیاسی فی نهایة الثمانینات، سیاسة اقتصادیة حرة تشابه مثیلاتها فی دول غرب أوروبا. تثبت المجر یوما بعد یوما بأنها ستکون أحد الأسواق الواعدة ضمن الدول التی انضمت حدیثا فی عام 2004 للاتحاد الأوروبی. تملک المجر، مع التشیک وسلوفینیا، أحد أعلى مستویات المعیشة فی شرق أوروبا. یساهم القطاع الخاص بحوالی 80% من الناتج القومی العام للبلاد. تذهب حوالی ثلث الاستثمارات الأجنبیة الاجمالیة لمنطقة وسط أوروبا للمجر وحدها. بلغت الاستثمارات الأجنبیة فی البلاد ما نسبته 23 ملیار دولار أمریکی منذ الانفتاح الاقتصادی عام 1989. تحاول الحکومة جاهدة خفض نسبة التضخم والبطالة وادخال إصلاحات اقتصادیة وضریبیة للبلاد، کما أبدت رغبتها فی بدء تطبیق الیورو فی عام 2010.
الزراعة
أهم المنتجات الزراعیة هی القمح، والذرة، وعباد الشمس، والبطاطس، والشمندر السکری، والخنازیر، والأبقار، والغنم، والدواجن، ومنجات الألبان. تصدر المجر الآلات والمعدات والمنتجات الزراعیة والغذائیة، کما تستورد بشکل رئیسی الآلات والوقود والمواد المعدنیة الخام والمنتجات الغذائیة. تشکل کل من ألمانیا والنمسا وروسیا وإیطالیا وفرنسا والمملکة المتحدة وهولندا والصین والیابان أهم الشرکاء التجاریین للمجر.
المواصلات

المجر بصفتها عضوا جدیدا فی الاتحاد الأوروبی، ترید أن تقدم مستوى مرتفع من نظام النقل العام من أجل الجمیع، حتى الذین یعیشون فی قریة صغیرة أو مدینة کبیرة. ورثت المجر نظامها من الحقبة الشیوعیة، عندما کان هناک سیارات خاصة أقل. لحسن الحظ بعد التغییر السیاسی تم الحفاظ على هذه النظم لأسباب سیاسیة اجتماعیة، وتم الإبقاء على الأسعار فی مستوى منخفض. على سبیل المثال سعر التذکرة المحلی نحو ثلث معظم التعریفات الأوروبیة. بیعت خلال العقد الأخیر الکثیر من السیارات الجدیدة والمستعملة فی هنغاریا أو المجر، وهذا زاد من العطف فی الطرق الرئیسیة والبلدات. الحفاظ على المشاکل المالیة ونقص الاستثمارات هی التی تسبب تراجع مستوى الخدمة، ولکن الحکومات والسلطات المحلیة تحافظ على الخدمات العامة الرئیسیة والخطوط.
الطریق السریع
هناک خمس طرق سریعة رئیسیة فی البلاد هی: M1، M3، M5، M6، M7. کما یوجد طریق دائری حول بودابست هو M0. یبلغ مجموع طول شبکة الطرق السریعة 542 کم. هناک عدة طرق سریعة تحت البناء حالیا.
السکک الحدید
تترکز السکک الحدیدیة حول العاصمة وتدیرها بشکل رئیسی شرکة السکک الحدیدیة المجریة (Magyar Államvasutak).
المطارات
المطار الرئیسی للبلاد هو مطار فیریهغی بودابست (Budapest Ferihegy) الذی یقع جنوب بودابست، تتخذ منه شرکة خطوط الطیران المجریة (Malév) مقرا لها.
الموانى
لیس للبلاد موانئ بحریة ولکن هناک عدة موانئ نهریة.
الثقافة

مکتبة کورفینیانا: کانت مکتبة کورفینیانا واحدة من أهم المکتبات الأورولبة فی عصر النهضة، أسسها الملک المجری ماتیاس کورفین (1490 - 1458). قام ماتیاس کورفین والذی کان من الأمراء الأقویاء إبان تلک الفترة بجمع ما یناهز 1460 مؤلفا. عند وفاته بلغ عدد المخطوطات 3000 وما یقارب نحو 4000 إلى 5000 مؤلفا وخاصة منها الکلاسیکیة الیونانیة واللاتینیة. مکتبة الکورفینیانا تعتبر أیضا ثانی أکبر مکتبة بعد مکتبة الفاتیکان حیث حازت على إعجاب العدید من معاصریها وساهمت فی إغناء حضور العدید من الأمراء الأوروبیین أمثال لورینزو دی میدیشی العظیم. غیر أنه وللأسف، فقد عمل الغزو العثمانی على تدمیر المکتبة وتشتیت الغالبیة العظمة من مؤلفاتها لتحتفظ المجر بعد ذلک بنحو ما یقارب 650 مخطوطة قدیمة فقط وموزعة بین المکتبات الوطنیة کمکتبة تشیشنیا وبعض المکتبات الخارجیة أیضا. و حالیا تعمل مکتبة تشیشینیا على إعادة دراسة ومعالجة المخطوطات بطریقة رقمیة.
الادب
یعود سبب عدم انتشار الأعمال الأدبیة المجریة لقلة انتشار اللغة المجریة خارج البلاد، التی یعتبرها البعض صعبة إلى حد ما وغیر مرتبطة باللغات المحیطة بها. مع ذلک هناک أعمال أدبیة واسعة أحد أهمها المسرحیة هی تحبّنی، التی کانت أَساس الفیلم لک برید. الشاعر یانوس أرانی (Arany) والکتاب ساندور مارای (Márai) وإمری کیرتیس (Kertész) هم أشهر الأدباء المجر.
الموسیقى
تتکون الموسیقى المجریة بشکل رئیسی من الموسیقى الفولکلوریة وموسیقى کلاسیکیة رومانسیة وباروک. من أشهر المؤلفین الموسیقیین هم فرانز لیست (Liszt) وبیلا بارتوک (Bartók) وزولتان کودالی (Kodály).
المطبخ
أشهر الأکلات المجریة هی الغولاش (goulash) وهی قطع لحم مع صلصة. الفلفل الرومی هو أحد خصائص المطبخ المجری الرئیسیة. تحضر الصلصات عادة مع أطباق اللحم، أشهر هذه الصلصات هی صلصة بورکولت (pörkölt).
العلماء
من أشهر العلماء المجر: بول إیردوس (Erdös) وجون فون نویمان (von Neumann) وأویغین فیغنر (Wigner). کما یرجع الفضل للعلماء المجر فی اختراع القنبلة الهیدروجینیة ومکعب روبیک ولغة الکمبیوتر بیسک وهندسة الریاضیات الغیر-الاقلیدیة.
السباحة
یعرف المجریون بولعهم بریاضات الماء کالسباحة، بولو المیاه والتجدیف، العجیب فی الأمر أن المجر غیر مطلة على أیة بحار ولکن بها العدید من البحیرات، وخاصة تلک منها المعدنیة الحارة، التی یقصدها أیضا السیاح الأوروبیین.
الریاضة
کان منتخب المجر لکرة القدم من المنتخبات القویة فی منتصف القرن العشرین، وأحرز المرکز الثانی فی بطولات کأس العالم لمرتین عامی 1938 و1954.
هذا ویعتبر اللاعب الراحل بوشکاش هو أفضل لاعب کرة قدم فی تاریخ المجر خلال حقبة الأربعینات والخمسینات فی القرن الماضی وهو العصر الذهبی للمجر ومن مشاهیر اللاعبین أیضا هیدیکوتی الذی درب نادی الأهلی المصری فی حقبة التسعینات من القرن الماضی.
فی عام 1961 أحتل الرباع المجری "Veres Győző" المرکز الأول فی بطولة بودابست لرفع الأثقال بعد تحطیمة الرقم العالمی برفع 115 کیلوجرام عبر کتفة بنجاح...اسم التمرین بالانجلیزیة "Overhead press" بذلک یکون أول من رفع 115 کیلوجرام عبر الکتف.
هناک المزید من الصور والملفات فی ویکیمیدیا کومنز حول: المجر

المراجع

^ Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Retrieved 2010-07-25.
^ EMESE SAGA HUNGARIAN PREHISTORY FROM THE BEGINNINGS TO KING ST. STEPHEN (1038)
^ "The plain facts - History"
^ Index - Belföld - A magyar kamasz iszik, dohányzik és könnyen teherbe esik. Index.hu. تاریخ الولوج 2009-09-20.
^ PowerPoint bemutató. (PDF) تاریخ الولوج 2008-11-21.
^ Index - Világméretű influenzajárvány jöhet. Index.hu. تاریخ الولوج 2008-11-21.
^ ITD Hungary - Supply Chain Management - Logistics, Distribution. Itdh.com. تاریخ الولوج 2010-05-29.
^ The Avar Khaganate - All Empires
^ Encyclopedia Americana (2000). 24.. 370: Grolier Incorporated.‎
^ Magyar (Hungarian) migration, 9th century. Eliznik.org.uk. تاریخ الولوج 2009-09-20.
^ Origins and Language. Source: U.S. Library of Congress.
^ Stephen Wyley (2001-05-30). The Magyars of Hungary. Geocities.com. تاریخ الولوج 2009-09-20.
^ Géza. Babylon. تاریخ الولوج 2008-11-20.
^ Asia Travel Europe. Hungaria Travel Information | Asia Travel Europe. Asiatravel.com. تاریخ الولوج 2008-11-21.
^ Findley, Carter V., and John Rothney. Twentieth Century World. sixth ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006. 278.
^ ReportDGResearchSocialValuesEN2.PDF
ع · ن · تدول أوروبا
ع · ن · تمجلس أوروبا
ع · ن · تالدول الأعضاء فی الاتحاد الأوروبی
ع · ن · تمنظمة التعاون والتنمیة الاقتصادیة (OECD)
ع · ن · تدول الاتحاد من أجل المتوسط
بوابة أوروبا
بوابة الاتحاد الأوروبی
تصنیفات: الدول الأعضاء فی الأمم المتحدةالمجردیمقراطیات لیبرالیةبلدان غیر ساحلیةدول أوروباأعضاء الاتحاد الأوروبیدول أعضاء فی حلف شمال الأطلسی
قس مصری

المجر او هنجاریا (بالمجرى:ماجارۏرساج Magyarország) رسمیا جمهوریة المجر, هى بلد من غیر سواحل فى منطقة الکاربات وحوض أوروبا الوسطى ، و تحدها النمسا ، و سلوفاکیا ، و أوکرانیا ، و رومانیا ، و صربیا ، و کرواتیا ، و سلوفینیا . وعاصمتها بودابست.


المجر عضو فى منظمة التعاون الاقتصادى والتنمیة ، و منظمة حلف شمال الأطلنطى و الاتحاد الأوروبی ، و مجموعة فیسیجراد و اتفاقیة شینجین اللغة الرسمیة مجرى ، اللى هى جزء من العیلة الفنلندیة الأوجریة و واحده من أربع لغات رسمیة للاتحاد الأوروبی مش من أصل هندو-أوروبی.


المجر کانت واحدة من أکثر 15 المقاصد السیاحیة شهرة فی العالم فی العشر سنین اللى فاتو. و تعتبر "واحدة من أجمل المناطق الحضریة فی العالم".

مصادر

↑ "Population Census 2001 – National and county data – Summary Data". Nepszamlalas.hu.
↑ Eurostat. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
↑ Hungarian Central Statistical Office Census Data 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Hungary". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
↑ "Human Development Report 2011". United Nations. 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
↑ "Index - Miért menjünk Magyarországra? Miért menjünk Szlovákiába?". Index.hu. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
↑ http://www.mth.gov.hu/download.php?ctag=download&docID=185
↑ http://whc.unesco.org/archive/advisory_body_evaluation/400bis.pdf
↑ "Budapest, including the Banks of the Danube, the Buda Castle Quarter and Andrássy Avenue - World Heritage Site - Pictures, info and travel reports". Worldheritagesite.org. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
ع · ن · ت
بلاد الاتحاد الاوروبى
اسپانیا · إستونیا · ألمانیا · ایرلاندا · ایطالیا · البرتغال · بلجیکا · بلجاریا · بولاندا · تشیک · الدنمارک · رومانیا · سلوڤاکیا · سلوڤینیا · السوید · فرنسا · فینلاندا · قبرص · لاتڤیا · لتوانیا · لوکسیمبورج · مالطا · المجر · بریطانیا · النمسا · نیدیرلاند · الیونان

فیه فایلات فى تصانیف ویکیمیدیا کومونز عن:
المجر
تصانیف: مقالات فیها مجرى تکست اللغهAll articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from July 2011Articles with invalid date parameter in templateبلاد الاتحاد الاوروبى المجر بلاد
قس ترکی آذری
Macarıstan (Macarca: Magyarország) - Avropada dövlət. Əhalisinin əsasını təşkil edən macarlar özlərini Hunqarian (yəni Hunlar ölkəsinin sakinləri) adlandırırlar . Macarıstanda ən son siyahıya alma 2001-ci ildə aparılmışdır . Bu siyahıya almaya əsasən ölkədə yaşayan nəfər əhalinin 9.627.057 nəfərini macarlar, 205.720 nəfərini qaraçılar, 120.344 nəfərini almanlar, 39.266 nəfərini slovaklar təşkil edir.
Mündəricat
1 Tarixi
1.1 Macarıstan 20-ci əsrdə
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Tarixi

Əsas məqalə: Macarıstan tarixi
Macarıstan 20-ci əsrdə
Macarıstan 1918-ci ilə qədər Avstriya-Macarıstan impariyasının tərkibində idi. O, əsasən aqrar ölkə idi. 1918-ci il noyabrın 16-da Macarıstan respublika elan olundu. Habsburqların 400 illik hakimiyyətinə son qoyuldu. Kommunistlərlə sosial-demokratların birləşmiş qüvvələri 1919-cu il martın 21-də inqilab edərək Macarıstan Sovet Respublikasının (MSR) yarandığını elan etdilər. Lakin həmin ilin avqustun 1-də MSR süqut etdi. Sovet höküməti devrildikdən sonra ölkədə naiblik (regent) sistemi yaradıldı. Naib vəzifəsini kontr-admiral Mikloş Xorti tutdu. O, Trianon sülh müqaviləsini tanıdığını bildirdi. Bu sülhə əsasən Macarıstan öz ərazisinin 2/3-ni, əhalisinin isə 1/3-ni və dənizə çıxış yolunu itirdi. Lakin sonralar Macarıstanda qraf Betlenin höküməti dövründə Slovakiya, Cənubi Karpat Ukraynası və Transilvaniya torpaqlarında macar hökmranlığı yenidən bərpa olundu. 1929-1933 illər dünya iqtisadi böhranı Macarıstan iqtisadiyyatına ağır təsir göstərdi. 1930-1932-ci illərdə taxıl yığımı 5,5 milyon sentner azaldı. Sənaye istehsalı 1929-cu ilə nisbətən 23,1% aşağı düşdü. İqtisadi böhran daxili vəziyyəti də gərginləşdirdi. 1932-ci ilin payızından etibarən Macarıstanın Almaniyaya meyli gücləndi. Macarıstanda hakimiyyətdə olan Xorti höküməti Almaniya və İtaliya ilə sıx əməkdaşlıq etməyə başladı. Macarıstan 1939-cu ildə Antikomintern və 1940-cı ildə Berlin paktına qoşuldu.
Coğrafiyası

Macarıstanın relyefi daha çox düzənlik xarakterə malikdir. Orta Dunay ovalığı geniş bir sahəni əhatə edir. Şimalda dağlar az bir sahəni tutur. Faydalı qazıntı ehtiyatları azdır. Əsas təbii sərvəti boksit yataqlarıdır. Az miqdarda daş kömür, neft, təbii qaz, mis və uran ehtiyatlarına malikdir.
İqlimi mülayim kontinentaldır. Belə əlverişli iqlimin olması və həmçinin geniş düzənlik sahələr və məhsuldar torpaqlar burada kənd təsərrüfatının inkişafı üçün əlverişli imkan yaradır. Təbii bitki örtüyü insanlar tərəfindən çox dəyişdirilmişdir. Ərazinin 16%-ni meşələr təşkil edir. Dunay, onun qolu olan Tisa və başqa çaylardan suvarma və nəqliyyat məqsədilə geniş istifadə edilir. Mənzərəli Balaton gölü və başqa təbii imkanlar hesabına turizmin inkişafına nail olunmuşdur.

İqtisadiyyatı

gore umm adambasina dusen gelir 11212(2005)ABS dollar
Əhalisi

Mədəniyyət

Təhsil

Şəkillər


g • m • r
Avropa ölkələri

g • m • r
Avropa Birliyi üzvü və üzvlüyə namizəd dövlətlər

g • m • r
Şimali Atlantika Müqaviləsi Təşkilatı (NATO)

Macarıstan ilə əlaqədar bu məqalə qaralama halındadır. Məqaləni redaktə edərək Vikipediyanı zənginləşdirin.
Kateqoriyalar: Macarıstan qaralamalarıMacarıstanAvropa ölkələri
قس ترکی استانبولی
Macaristan (Macarca: Magyarország) veya resmî olarak Macaristan Cumhuriyeti, (Macarca: Magyar Köztársaság) Orta Avrupa'da Karpatlarda kurulu olan ve denize kıyısı olmayan bir ülkedir. Komşuları batıda Avusturya ve Slovenya, kuzeyde Slovakya, doğuda Romanya ve Ukrayna, güneyde Sırbistan ve Hırvatistan'dır. Başkenti Budapeşte olan Macaristan, OECD, NATO, AB, Visegrád Grubu ve Schengen üyesidir. Ülkedeki resmî dil, Fin-Ugor dillerinden olan ve Avrupa Birliği'nin 23 resmî dilinden biri olan Macarcadır. Bu bağlamda Macarca, Avrupa Birliği'nde Fince, Estonca ve Maltaca ile beraber Hint-Avrupa dillerinden olmayan dört dilden biridir.
Hüküm süren Kelt (MÖ 450 sonrası) ve Roma (MÖ 9 - 5. yüzyıl) dönemlerinden sonra Macaristan'ın kuruluşu 10. yüzyılda Roma tarafından 1000 yılında tahta oturtulan I. István'ın büyük büyükbabası Árpád önderliğinde Macarların Asya'dan bölgeye gelişiyle Macaristan tarihi başlar. Macar Krallığı çeşitli kesintilerle de olsa 946 yıl varlığını sürdürdü. Bu süreçte de batının kültürel merkezlerinden biri oldu. Zamanının süper güçlerinden olan Macaristan, ittifak devletleriyle girdiği I. Dünya Savaşı'nı kaybedince ülke topraklarının üçte ikisinden fazlasını 3.3 milyon etnik Macar halkıyla beraber kaybetti. Buna neden olan ve 1920 yılında imzalanan Trianon Antlaşması, Macar tarihinin en kötü olaylarından biri olarak kabul edildiği gibi, ağır şartlarıyla bilinmektedir. II. Dünya Savaşı sırasında Nazi Almanyası ile birlik olan Macaristan, bunun ardından Sovyet Rusyası tarafından ele geçirildi ve 1947 ile 1989 yılları arasında komünist yönetimi benimsedi. Bu dönemde Macaristan, 1956 Macar Devrimi gibi olaylarla uluslararası bir tanınırlık elde etti. Macaristan 1989 yılındaki devrimle Doğu Bloğu'nun çökmesiyle sınırlarını Avusturya'ya açtı. Bu yıldan sonra da parlamenter cumhuriyet sıfatını elde etti. Bugün ülke geniş gelire sahip bir ekonomi barındırmaktadır. Ayrıca bölgesel bazı kaynakları da tekelinde bulundurmaktadır.
Önceki on yılda Macaristan dünyanın onuncu dinamik ekonomisi olarak gösterildiği gibi, dünyanın on beş turistik merkezinden biridir. Aynı şekilde başkent Budapeşte, dünyanın en güzel kentlerinden biri olarak gösterilmektedir. Ülkedeki Hévíz Gölü, dünyanın en büyük ikinci termal gölüdür. Yine Balaton Gölü, Orta Avrupa'daki en büyük göldür. Son olarak Hortobágy, Avrupa'nın en geniş otlağıdır.
Konu başlıkları
Coğrafya



Ülkenin haritası
Macaristan Yaylası (Felföld)
Macaristan'ın kuzey kesimleri dağlık bir bölgedir. Doğu komşusu Romanya'nın kuzey sınırından içeri giren bu dağ zinciri batıya doğru uzanarak Avusturya Alpleri ile birleşir. Ama bu dağlar akarsulara sık sık geçit veren sayısız birtakım tepelere parçalanmıştır. Dağların en yüksek noktası Kekes Tepesidir (1014 m). Yer yer vadilerle yarılan dağların yamaçları sık ormanlarla kaplıdır. Tepelerden vadilere inildikçe "lös" adı verilen kil ve kum karışımı sarı renkli balçıkla kaplı araziler görülür. Bunlar çok verimli topraklardır. Bağlar, meyve bahçeleriyle dolu olan vadilerde sırtlarını yamaçlara dayamış kasabalara rastlanır. Tuna Nehri'nin batısında Bakony Ormanları bulunur.
Macar Denizi diye anılan Balaton Gölü'ne kadar uzayan bu dağlık bölge çoğunlukla kireçtaşından oluşmuş bir yayladır. En yüksek tepesi Kőröshegy Dağı'dır (713 m). Buralarda da tepeler ormanlarla kaplı olup vadiler tarıma ayrılmıştır. Vadilerde de yer yer lös toprağına rastlanır. Balaton Gölü'nden güneye doğru, Sırbistan sınırı yakınlarında Mecsek Dağları (En yüksek noktası 682 m) bulunur. "Felföld" diye anılan Macaristan Yaylası burada sona erer.
Macaristan Ovası (Alföld)
Ana madde: Büyük Macaristan Ovası
Batı Macaristan Ovası’nda ilk planda tepelerin çokluğu göze çarpar. Buralarda akarsular bulanık ve çamurludur. Bunlardan daha çok ormandan kesilen ağaç kütüklerini taşımak için faydalanılır. Tuna'ya dökülen Raba, Repce ve Marcal nehirleri arasında kalan topraklarda buğday ekimi yapılır. Tuna'yı geçip doğuya ilerlendikçe Büyük Alföld denilen karakteristik Macar Ovası ile karşılaşılır. Macar halkının yarısını barındıran baştanbaşa düz, engin bir çayırdır. Büyük Alföld'de büyük ısı farkları göze çarpar. Kuzeyde dağlarla çevrili olduğu için yazın şiddetli sıcaklar olur. Kışın ise dondurucu rüzgârlar ovayı kaplar. Karpatlar’dan inen Tisza Nehri ovayı enlemesine keserek güneyde Sırbistan’a girer (Voyvodina Özerk Bölgesi) ve orada Tuna'ya karışır. Büyük miktarda çamuru da birlikte sürükleyen bu ırmak, ilkbahar taşkınları sırasında oldukça geniş bir çevreyi sular altında bırakır. Yazın kızgın güneşle kuruyan bu çamurlar Tuna ile Tisza arasındaki bölgenin karakteristik manzarasıdır. Kuzeydoğuda Romanya sınırına yakın Debrecen dolaylarında buna benzer kumlu, balçıklı yerlere rastlanır.
Tarıma çok elverişli löslü topraklar çoğunluğu meydana getirirler. Macaristan'ın tarım yönünden zenginliğinin belli başlı kaynağı bu bereketli ovalardır.
İklim

Sıcaklık ocak ayında -1 ve 2 derece arasındadır. Yaz aylarında ise sıcaklık en fazla 29 derece'dir. Denize kıyısı olmadığı için ülkede karasal iklim hâkimdir.
Tarih

Ana madde: Macaristan tarihi
Ana madde: Arpad Hanedanı
Politika



Parlamento tarafından her dört yılda bir seçilen devlet başkanının rolü semboliktir, ancak görevleri arasında başbakanı atamak vardır. Başbakan ise hükümet üyelerini seçer ve görevden alır. Her bakan adayı, devlet başkanı tarafından bir formalite olarak onaylanmalıdır.
Yasama organı 386 üyeli Parlamento'dur (Országgyűlés). Bir siyasî parti parlamentoya girebilmek için oyların en az %5'ini almalıdır. Sonuncusu Nisan 2006'da yapılan milletvekili seçimleri 4 yılda bir yapılır. 15 üyeli Anayasa Mahkemesi, yasaların anayasaya uygunluğunu denetler.
Etnik Yapı

Macaristan'daki etnik unsurlar
Macar

%94
Roman

%2
Alman

%1.2
Slovak

%0.4
diğer

%2.3
Macarların atalarının büyük bir çoğunluğu Ural-altay/Fin-Ugor kavimleri'nden olan Hun-Ugor kavimleridir. Daha sonra Hint Avrupa grubundan olmayan bu Ugor kavimlerine Hunlardan bazı boylar karışmıştır. Karışan bu üç kavim, Hazarlar'ın egemenliğini kabul etmiştir (460). ..
Ayrıca bakınız: Arpad Hanedanı
Macaristan İdarî Bölgeleri ve Başkentleri



NUTS 1


NUTS 2


NUTS 3
NUTS 1 NUTS 2 NUTS 3
Bölüm Kodu Büyük Alan Kodu Bölge Kodu
Orta Macaristan HU1 Orta Macaristan HU10 Budapeşte HU101
Pest HU102
Transdanubia HU2 Orta Transdanubia HU21 Fejér HU211
Komárom-Esztergom HU212
Veszprém HU213
Batı Transdanubia HU22 Győr-Moson-Sopron HU221
Vas HU222
Zala HU223
Güney Transdanubia HU23 Baranya HU231
Somogy HU232
Tolna HU233
Kuzey Macaristan ve Alföld HU3 Kuzey Macaristan HU31 Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén HU311
Heves HU312
Nógrád HU313
Kuzey Alföld HU32 Hajdú-Bihar HU321
Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok HU322
Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg HU323
Güney Alföld HU33 Bács-Kiskun HU331
Békés HU332
Csongrád HU333


Macaristanın bölgeleri
Bölgenin Adı Bölge Merkezi Alan
(km²) Nüfus Yoğunluk
(/km²)
Kuzey Macaristan Miskolc 13.428 1.289.000 96
Kuzey Alföld Debrecen 17.749 1.554.000 88
Güney Alföld Szeged 18.339 1.367.000 75
Orta Macaristan Budapest 6919 2.825.000 408
Orta Transdanubia Székesfehérvár 11.237 1.114.000 99
Batı Transdanubia Győr 11.209 1.004.000 90
Güney Transdanubia Pécs 14.169 989.000 70
İdarî Bölge Bölge Merkezi Alan
(km²) Nüfus Yoğunluk Kasaba/
Köy
Şablon:Hungary counties imagemep 450
Bács-Kiskun Kecskemét 8,445 541,584 64 119
Baranya Pécs 4,430 402,260 91 301
Békés Békéscsaba 5,631 392,845 70 75
Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Miskolc 7,247 739,143 102 355
Csongrád Szeged 4,263 425,785 100 60
Fejér Székesfehérvár 4,359 428,579 98 108
Győr-Moson-Sopron Győr 4,208 440,138 105 182
Hajdú-Bihar Debrecen 6,211 550,265 89 82
Heves Eger 3,637 323,769 89 119
Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok Szolnok 5,582 413,174 74 75
Komárom-Esztergom Tatabánya 2,265 315,886 139 76
Nógrád Salgótarján 2,546 218,218 86 129
Pest Budapest 6,393 1,124,395 176 186
Somogy Kaposvár 6,036 334,065 55 244
Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg Nyíregyháza 5,936 583,564 98 228
Tolna Szekszárd 3,703 247,287 67 108
Vas Szombathely 3,336 266,342 80 216
Veszprém Veszprém 4,493 368,519 82 217
Zala Zalaegerszeg 3,784 269,705 78 257

Balaton



Diósgyőr



Tihany



Buda



Transdanubia



Hortobágy



Hollókő



Esztergom



Győr



Keszthely





Esterháza

Budapest

Tuna River
Bács-Kiskun

Bácsalmási
Bajai
Jánoshalmi
Kalocsai
Kecskeméti
Kiskőrösi
Kiskunfélegyházi
Kiskunhalasi
Kiskunmajsai
Kunszentmiklósi
Baranya

Komlói
Mohácsi
Pécsi
Pécsváradi
Sásdi
Sellyei
Siklósi
Szentlőrinci
Szigetvári
Békés

Békéscsabai
Békési
Gyulai
Mezőkovácsházi
Orosházi
Sarkadi
Szarvasi
Szeghalmi
Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén

Abaúj–Hegyközi
Bodrogközi
Edelényi
Encsi
Kazincbarcikai
Mezőcsáti
Mezőkövesdi
Miskolci
Ózdi
Sárospataki
Sátoraljaújhelyi
Szerencsi
Szikszói
Tiszaújvárosi
Tokaji
Csongrád

Csongrádi
Hódmezővásárhelyi
Kisteleki
Makói
Mórahalmi
Szegedi
Szentesi
Fejér

Abai
Adonyi
Bicskei
Dunaújvárosi
Enyingi
Ercsi
Gárdonyi
Móri
Sárbogárdi
Székesfehérvári
Győr-Moson-Sopron

Csornai
Győri
Kapuvár-Beledi
Mosonmagyaróvári
Pannonhalmi
Sopron-Fertődi
Téti
Hajdú-Bihar

Balmazújvárosi
Berettyóújfalui
Debreceni
Derecske–Létavértesi
Hajdúböszörményi
Hajdúhadházi
Hajdúszoboszlói
Polgári
Püspökladányi
Heves

Bélapátfalvai
Egri
Füzesabonyi
Gyöngyösi
Hatvani
Hevesi
Pétervásárai

Komárom-Esztergom

Dorogi
Esztergomi
Kisbéri
Komáromi
Oroszlányi
Tatai
Tatabányai
Nógrád

Balassagyarmati
Bátonyterenyei
Pásztói
Rétsági
Salgótarjáni
Szécsényi
Pest

Aszódi
Budaörsi
Ceglédi
Dabasi
Dunakeszi
Érdi
Gödöllői
Gyáli
Monori
Nagykátai
Pilisvörösvári
Ráckevei
Szentendrei
Szobi
Váci
Veresegyházi
Somogy

Balatonföldvári
Barcsi
Csurgói
Fonyódi
Kadarkúti
Kaposvári
Lengyeltóti
Marcali
Nagyatádi
Siófoki
Tabi
Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg

Baktalórántházai
Csengeri
Fehérgyarmati
Ibrány–Nagyhalászi
Kisvárdai
Mátészalkai
Nagykállói
Nyírbátori
Nyíregyházai
Tiszavasvári
Vásárosnaményi
Záhonyi
Tolna

Bonyhádi
Dombóvári
Paksi
Szekszárdi
Tamási
Vas

Celldömölki
Csepregi
Körmendi
Kőszegi
Őriszentpéteri
Sárvári
Szentgotthárdi
Szombathelyi
Vasvári
Veszprém

Ajkai
Balatonalmádi
Balatonfüredi
Pápai
Sümegi
Tapolcai
Várpalotai
Veszprémi
Zirci
Zala

Hévízi
Keszthelyi
Lenti
Letenyei
Nagykanizsai
Pacsai
Zalaegerszegi
Zalakarosi
Zalaszentgróti
Kaynakça

^ "The plain facts - History". MTI. 2008-11-11 tarihinde erişildi.
^ "East on the Danube: Hungary's Tragic Century". The New York Times (2003-08-09). 2008-11-11 tarihinde erişildi.
^ "Kosovo’s Actions Hearten a Hungarian Enclave". The New York Times (2008-04-07). 2008-11-12 tarihinde erişildi.
^ "Hungary". Encarta. 2008-11-12 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
^ World Bank Country Classification, 2007
^ "PowerPoint bemutató" (PDF). 2008-11-21 tarihinde erişildi.
^ "Index - Világméretű influenzajárvány jöhet". Index.hu. 2008-11-21 tarihinde erişildi.
^
^ "Index - Miért menjünk Magyarországra? Miért menjünk Szlovákiába?". Index.hu. 2008-11-21 tarihinde erişildi.
^ http://www.mth.gov.hu/download.php?ctag=download&docID=185
^ http://whc.unesco.org/archive/advisory_body_evaluation/400bis.pdf
^ "Budapest, including the Banks of the Danube, the Buda Castle Quarter and Andrássy Avenue - World Heritage Site - Pictures, info and travel reports". Worldheritagesite.org. 2008-11-21 tarihinde erişildi.
g · t · dMacaristan'ın en üst düzey idari birimleri
g · t · dAvrupa
g · t · d Avrupa Birliği üyesi ülkeler ve aday ülkeleri
g · t · d Kuzey Atlantik Antlaşması Örgütü (NATO)
g · t · dFrankofon'a üye ve gözlemci ülkeler
Kategori: Macaristan
قس انگلیسی
Hungary i/ˈhʌŋɡəri/ (Hungarian: Magyarország ( listen)) is a landlocked Central European country. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine, and Romania to the east, Serbia, and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The country's capital, and largest city, is Budapest. Hungary is a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the Visegrád Group, and is a Schengen state. The official language is Hungarian, also known as Magyar, which is part of the Finno-Ugric group and is the most widely spoken non-Indo-European language in Europe.
Following a Celt (after c. 450 BC) and a Roman (AD 9 - c. 430) period, the foundation of Hungary was laid in the late 9th century by the Hungarian prince Árpád, whose great-grandson Saint Stephen I was crowned with a crown sent by the pope from Rome in 1000 AD. The Kingdom of Hungary lasted for 946 years,1 and at various points was regarded as one of the cultural centres of the Western world. After about 150 years of partial Ottoman occupation (1541–1699), Hungary was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy, and later constituted half of the Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy (1867–1918).
A great power until the end of World War I, Hungary has lost about 70 percent of its territory, along with one third of its ethnically Hungarian population, and all its sea ports under the Treaty of Trianon, the terms of which have been considered excessively harsh by many in Hungary. The kingdom was succeeded by an authoritarian regime, and then a Communist era (1947–1989) during which Hungary gained widespread international attention during the Revolution of 1956 and the seminal opening of its border with Austria in 1989, thus accelerating the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. The present form of government is a parliamentary republic, which was established in 1989. Today, Hungary is a high-income economy and a regional leader in some respects.
Hungary is one of the thirty most popular tourist destinations of the world, attracting 8.6 million tourists a year (2007). The country is home to the largest thermal water cave system and the second largest thermal lake in the world (Lake Hévíz), the largest lake in Central Europe (Lake Balaton), and the largest natural grasslands in Europe (Hortobágy).
Contents
History

Main article: History of Hungary
Before 895
Main articles: Hungarian prehistory and Hungarian mythology


Ancient Hungarian pouch plate from Galgóc.
The Roman Empire conquered territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BCE. From 9 BCE to the end of the 4th century Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of later Hungary's territory. Later came the Huns, who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths, Lombards, and Gepids, and the polyethnic Avars, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin. In the late 9th century the land was inhabited by Slavic peoples and Avars. On the eve of the arrival of the Hungarians, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin. Additionally, the Avars formed a significant part of the population of the Carpathian Basin at the end of the 9th century; both contemporary sources and a growing number of archaeological evidences suggest that groups of the Avars survived the disintegration of their empire.
The freshly unified Magyars (Hungarians) led by Árpád settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguists, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that formerly inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
Medieval Hungary 895–1526
Main articles: Principality of Hungary and Kingdom of Hungary in the Middle Ages


Hungarian raids in the 10th century


Fresco depiction of a Hungarian warrior (Italy)
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. Initially, the rising Principality of Hungary ("Western Tourkia" in medieval Greek sources) was a state consisting of a semi-nomadic people. However, it accomplished an enormous transformation into a Christian realm during the 10th century. This state was well-functioning and the nation's military power allowed the Hungarians to conduct successful fierce campaigns and raids from Constantinople to as far as today's Spain. The Hungarians defeated no fewer than three major East Frankish Imperial Armies between 907 and 910. A later defeat at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955 signaled a provisory end to most campaigns on foreign territories, at least towards the West.
Age of Árpádian kings
Main article: Árpád dynasty


King Saint Stephen I


The Holy Crown, the key symbol of Hungary


King Saint Ladislaus I


Romanesque cathedral of Pécs
The year 972 marked the date when the ruling prince (Hungarian: fejedelem) Géza of the Árpád dynasty officially started to integrate Hungary into the Christian Western Europe. His first-born son, Saint Stephen I became the first King of Hungary after defeating his pagan uncle Koppány, who also claimed the throne. Under Stephen, Hungary was recognized as a Catholic Apostolic Kingdom. Applying to Pope Sylvester II, Stephen received the insignia of royalty (including probably a part of the Holy Crown of Hungary, currently kept in the Hungarian Parliament) from the papacy.
By 1006, Stephen had consolidated his power, and started sweeping reforms to convert Hungary into a Western feudal state. The country switched to using the Latin language, and until as late as 1844, Latin remained the official language of Hungary. Hungary became a powerful kingdom. Ladislaus I extended Hungary's frontier in Transylvania and invaded Croatia in 1091. The Croatian campaign culminated in the Battle of Gvozd Mountain in 1097 and a personal union of Croatia and Hungary in 1102, ruled by Coloman.
The most powerful and wealthiest king of the Árpád dynasty was Béla III, who disposed of the equivalent of 23 tonnes of pure silver a year. This exceeded the income of the French king (estimated at 17 tonnes) and was double the receipts of the English Crown.
Andrew II issued the Diploma Andreanum which secured the special privileges of the Transylvanian Saxons and is considered the first Autonomy law in the world. He led the Fifth Crusade to the Holy Land in 1217, setting up the largest royal army in the history of Crusades. His Golden Bull of 1222 was the first constitution in Continental Europe. The lesser nobles also began to present Andrew with grievances, a practice that evolved into the institution of the parliament (parlamentum publicum).
In 1241–1242, the kingdom received a major blow with the Mongol (Tatar) Invasion. Up to half of Hungary's then population of 2,000,000 were victims of the invasion. King Béla IV let Cumans and Jassic people into the depopulated country, who were fleeing the Mongols. Over the centuries they were fully assimilated into the Hungarian population.
As a consequence, after the Mongols retreated, King Béla ordered the construction of hundreds of stone castles and fortifications, to defend against a possible second Mongol invasion. The Mongols returned to Hungary in 1285, but the newly built stone-castle systems and new tactics (using a higher proportion of heavily armed knights) stopped them. The invading Mongol force was defeated near Pest by the royal army of Ladislaus IV of Hungary. As with later invasions, it was repelled handily, the Mongols losing much of their invading force.
Age of elected kings
Main article: Ottoman–Hungarian Wars


Lands, countries kingdoms under control of Louis the Great.


The Gothic-Renaissance Hunyad Castle in Transylvania, present-day Romania.


Western conquests of Matthias Corvinus.
The Kingdom of Hungary reached one of its greatest extent during the Árpádian kings, yet royal power was weakened at the end of their rule in 1301. After a destructive period of interregnum (1301–1308), the first Angevin king, Charles I of Hungary – a bilineal descendant of the Árpád dynasty – successfully restored royal power, and defeated oligarch rivals, the so called "little kings". The second Angevin Hungarian king, Louis the Great (1342–1382), led many successful military campaigns from Lithuania to Southern Italy (Kingdom of Naples), and was also King of Poland from 1370. After King Louis died without a male heir, the country was stabilized only when Sigismund of Luxembourg (1387–1437) succeeded to the throne, who in 1433 also became Holy Roman Emperor. Sigismund was also (in several ways) a bilineal descendant of the Árpád dynasty.
The first Hungarian Bible translation was completed in 1439. For half a year in 1437, there was an antifeudal and anticlerical peasant revolt in Transylvania, the Budai Nagy Antal Revolt, which was strongly influenced by Hussite ideas.
From a small noble family in Transylvania, John Hunyadi grew to become one of the country's most powerful lords, thanks to his outstanding capabilities as a mercenary commander. He was elected governor then regent. He was a successful crusader against the Ottoman Turks, one of his greatest victories being the Siege of Belgrade in 1456.
The last strong king of medieval Hungary was the Renaissance king Matthias Corvinus (1458–1490), son of John Hunyadi. His election was the first time that a member of the nobility mounted to the Hungarian royal throne without dynastic background. He was a successful military leader and an enlightened patron of the arts and learning. His library, the Bibliotheca Corviniana, was Europe's greatest collection of historical chronicles, philosophic and scientific works in the 15th century, and second only in size to the Vatican Library. The library is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The serfs and common people considered him a just ruler because he protected them from excessive demands from and other abuses by the magnates. Under his rule, in 1479, the Hungarian army destroyed the Ottoman and Wallachian troops at the Battle of Breadfield. Abroad he defeated the Polish and German imperial armies of Frederick at Breslau (Wrocław). Matthias' mercenary standing army, the Black Army of Hungary, was an unusually large army for its time, and it conquered parts of Austria, Vienna (1485) and parts of Bohemia.
Decline of Hungary (1490–1526)
King Matthias died without lawful sons, and the Hungarian magnates procured the accession of the Pole Vladislaus II (1490–1516), supposedly because of his weak influence on Hungarian aristocracy. Hungary's international role declined, its political stability shaken, and social progress was deadlocked. In 1514, the weakened old King Vladislaus II faced a major peasant rebellion led by György Dózsa, which was ruthlessly crushed by the nobles, led by János Szapolyai. The resulting degradation of order paved the way for Ottoman pre-eminence. In 1521, the strongest Hungarian fortress in the South, Nándorfehérvár (the Hungarian name of Belgrade, Serbia), fell to the Turks. The early appearance of Protestantism further worsened internal relations in the anarchical country.
Ottoman wars 1526–1699
Main articles: Habsburg Hungary, Ottoman Hungary, Principality of Transylvania (1571–1711), and Ottoman–Habsburg wars


Ottoman ravage in Hungary, in the 16th century


Women of Eger. Hungarians successfully defended the town from the Ottomans.
After some 150 years of wars with the Hungarians and other states, the Ottomans gained a decisive victory over the Hungarian army at the Battle of Mohács in 1526, where King Louis II died while fleeing. Amid political chaos, the divided Hungarian nobility elected two kings simultaneously, János Szapolyai and Ferdinand I of the Habsburg dynasty.
With the conquest of Buda by the Turks in 1541, Hungary was divided into three parts and remained so until the end of the 17th century. The north-western part, termed as Royal Hungary, was annexed by the Habsburgs who ruled as Kings of Hungary. The eastern part of the kingdom became independent as the Principality of Transylvania, under Ottoman (and later Habsburg) suzerainty. The remaining central area, including the capital Buda, was known as the Pashalik of Buda.
In 1686, the Holy League's army, containing over 74,000 men from various nations, reconquered Buda from the Turks. After some more crushing defeats of the Ottomans in the next few years, the entire Kingdom of Hungary was removed from Ottoman rule by 1718. The last raid into Hungary by the Ottoman vassals Tatars from Crimea took place in 1717. The constrained Habsburg Counter-Reformation efforts in the 17th century reconverted the majority of the kingdom to Catholicism.
The ethnic composition of Hungary was fundamentally changed as a consequence of the prolonged warfare with the Turks. A large part of the country became devastated, population growth was stunted, and many smaller settlements perished. The Austrian-Habsburg government settled large groups of Serbs and other Slavs in the depopulated south and settled Germans in various areas, but Hungarians were not allowed to settle or re-settle in the south of the Great Plain.
From the 18th century to World War I
Main article: History of Hungary 1700–1919


Francis II Rákóczi, leader of the uprising against Habsburg rule.
Between 1703 and 1711 there was a large-scale uprising led by Francis II Rákóczi, who after the dethronement of the Habsburgs in 1707 at the Diet of Ónod, took power provisionally as the Ruling Prince of Hungary for the wartime period, but refused the Hungarian Crown and the title "King". The uprisings lasted for years. After 8 years of war with the Habsburg Empire, the Hungarian Kuruc army lost the last main battle at Trencsén (1708).
The Period of Reforms


Count István Széchenyi, the "greatest Hungarian"; he donated a year’s income to establish the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
During the Napoleonic Wars and afterwards, the Hungarian Diet had not convened for decades. In the 1820s, the Emperor was forced to convene the Diet, which marked the beginning of a Reform Period (1825–1848, Hungarian: reformkor).
Count István Széchenyi, one of the most prominent statesmen of the country, recognized the urgent need of modernization and his message got through. The Hungarian Parliament was reconvened in 1825 to handle financial needs. A liberal party emerged and focused on providing for the peasantry. Lajos Kossuth – a famous journalist at that time – emerged as leader of the lower gentry in the Parliament. A remarkable upswing started as the nation concentrated its forces on modernization even though the Habsburg monarchs obstructed all important liberal laws relating to human civil and political rights and economic reforms. Many reformers (Lajos Kossuth, Mihály Táncsics) were imprisoned by the authorities.
Revolution and War of Independence
Main article: Hungarian Revolution of 1848


Lajos Kossuth
On 15 March 1848, mass demonstrations in Pest and Buda enabled Hungarian reformists to push through a list of 12 demands. Under governor and president Lajos Kossuth and the first Prime Minister, Lajos Batthyány, the House of Habsburg was dethroned.
The Habsburg Ruler and his advisors skillfully manipulated the Croatian, Serbian and Romanian peasantry, led by priests and officers firmly loyal to the Habsburgs, and induced them to rebel against the Hungarian government, though the Hungarians were supported by the vast majority of the Slovak, German and Rusyn nationalities and by all the Jews of the kingdom, as well as by a large number of Polish, Austrian and Italian volunteers. In July 1849 the Hungarian Parliament proclaimed and enacted the first laws of ethnic and minority rights in the world. Many members of the nationalities gained the coveted highest positions within the Hungarian Army, like General János Damjanich, an ethnic Serb who became a Hungarian national hero through his command of the 3rd Hungarian Army Corps.
Initially, the Hungarian forces (Honvédség) defeated Austrian armies. To counter the successes of the Hungarian revolutionary army, Habsburg Emperor Franz Joseph I asked for help from the "Gendarme of Europe", Czar Nicholas I, whose Russian armies invaded Hungary. This made Artúr Görgey surrender in August 1849. The leader of the Austrian army, Julius Jacob von Haynau, became governor of Hungary for a few months, and ordered the execution of the 13 Martyrs of Arad, leaders of the Hungarian army, and Prime Minister Batthyány in October 1849. Lajos Kossuth escaped into exile.
Following the war of 1848 – 1849, the whole country was in "passive resistance".
Austria–Hungary 1867–1918
Main articles: Austria-Hungary and Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen


Austria-Hungary


King Charles IV of Hungary, with Zita and Crown Prince Otto.
Because of external and internal problems, reforms seemed inevitable and major military defeats of Austria forced the Habsburgs to negotiate the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, by which the dual Monarchy of Austria–Hungary was formed. This Empire had the second largest area in Europe (after the Russian Empire), and it was the third most populous (after Russia and the German Empire). The two realms were governed separately by two parliaments from two capital cities, with a common monarch and common external and military policies. Economically, the empire was a customs union. The old Hungarian Constitution was restored, and Franz Joseph I was crowned as King of Hungary.
The country was mixed with regard to both mother tongue and religion.
Religions (1910 census, Croatia-Slavonia excluded):needed
Roman Catholic 49.3% (Hungarians, Germans, Slovaks)
Calvinist 14.3% (Hungarians)
Greek Orthodox 12.8% (Romanians, Serbs)
Greek Catholic 11.0% (Ruthenians, Romanians)
Lutheran 7.1% (Germans, Slovaks, Hungarians)
Jewish 5.0% (Hungarians, Germans)
Unitarian 0.4% (Hungarians)


Ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary, 1910
First language (1910 census, Croatia-Slavonia excluded):needed
Hungarian 54.5%
Romanian 16.1%
Slovak 10.7%
German 10.4%
Serbian 2.5%
Ruthenian 2.5%
Croatian 1.1%
The era witnessed impressive economic development. The formerly backward Hungarian economy became relatively modern and industrialized by the turn of the 20th century, although agriculture remained dominant until 1890. In 1873, the old capital Buda and Óbuda were officially united with Pest, thus creating the new metropolis of Budapest.
Technological change accelerated industrialization and urbanization. The GNP per capita grew roughly 1.45% per year from 1870 to 1913. The growth was even higher, by a substantial amount, in the Hungarian-language area of the country. That level of growth compared very favorably to that of other European nations such as Britain (1.00%), France (1.06%), and Germany (1.51%).needed Many of the state institutions and the modern administrative system of Hungary were established during this period.
World War I 1914–1918
Main article: Hungary in World War I


Hungarian built dreadnought class battleship SMS Szent István in World War I
After the Assassination in Sarajevo, the Hungarian prime minister István Tisza and his cabinet, the only one in Europe to do so, tried to avoid the outbreak and escalating of a war in Europe, but their diplomatic efforts were unsuccessful.
Austria–Hungary drafted 9 million (fighting forces: 7.8 million) soldiers in World War I (over 4 million from the Kingdom of Hungary) on the side of Germany, Bulgaria and Turkey. The Central Powers conquered Serbia. Romania declared war. The Central Powers conquered Southern Romania and the Romanian capital Bucharest. In 1916 Emperor Franz Joseph died, and the new monarch Charles IV sympathized with the pacifists. With great difficulty, the Central powers stopped and repelled the attacks of the Russian Empire.
The Eastern front of the Allied (Entente) Powers completely collapsed. The Austro-Hungarian Empire then withdrew from all defeated countries. On the Italian front, the Austro-Hungarian army made no progress against Italy after January 1918. Despite great Eastern successes, Germany suffered complete defeat on the more important Western front.
By 1918, the economic situation had deteriorated (strikes in factories were organized by leftist and pacifist movements) and uprisings in the army had become commonplace. In the capital cities, the Austrian and Hungarian leftist liberal movements (the maverick parties) and their leaders supported the separatism of ethnic minorities. Austria-Hungary signed a general armistice in Padua on 3 November 1918. In October 1918, Hungary's union with Austria was dissolved.
Between the World Wars 1918–1941
Main articles: Hungary between the two world wars and Hungarian interwar economy


Miklós Horthy, Regent of Hungary (1920–1944)


With the Treaty of Trianon, Hungary lost 72% of its territory, its sea ports and 3,425,000 ethnic Hungarians found themselves separated from their motherland.
Majority Hungarian areas detached from Hungary
The success of the 1918 Aster Revolution in Budapest brought Mihály Károlyi to power as prime minister and later as president of the first republic of Hungary. a devotee of Entente. Károlyi ordered the full disarmament of the Hungarian Army, leaving Hungary without any national defence.
Romania took control of Transylvania and other parts of eastern Hungary, Czechoslovakia took control of the northern parts (also known as Upper Hungary), and a joint Serbian and French army took control of the southern parts. These territories had majority populations of the respective occupying nations, but territories were occupied further than the ethnic boundaries, and so each had a significant Hungarian population as well. The post-War Entente backed the subsequent annexations of these territories.
In March 1919, the Communists took power in Hungary. In April, Béla Kun proclaimed the Hungarian Soviet Republic. Kun's government, like its immediate predecessor, proved to be short-lived. Despite some initial military successes against the Czechoslovakian Army, the Romanian Army defeated Kun's troops and took Budapest, ousting his regime.
On 4 June 1920, the Treaty of Trianon was signed, which established new borders for Hungary. Hungary lost 71% of its territory and 66% of its population. About one-third of the ethnic Hungarian population (3.4 of 10 million Hungarians) became minorities in neighboring countries. The new borders separated Hungary's industrial base from its sources of raw materials, and Hungary also lost its only sea port at Fiume (today Rijeka). The revision of the Treaty of Trianon rose to the top of Hungary's political agenda. Some wanted to restore the full pre-Trianon area, others only the ethnic Hungarian majority territories.
Rightist Hungarian military forces, led by the former Austro-Hungarian Admiral Miklós Horthy, entered Budapest in the wake of the Romanian Army's departure and filled the vacuum of state power. In January 1920, elections were held for a unicameral assembly. Admiral Horthy was elected Regent, thereby formally restoring the monarchy to Hungary. However, there would be no more kings of Hungary despite attempts by the former Habsburg ruler Charles IV to return to his former seat of power. Horthy ruled as Regent until 16 October 1944. Hungary remained a parliamentary democracy, but after 1932, autocratic tendencies gradually returned as a result of Nazi influence and the Great Depression.
World War II 1941–1945
Main articles: Hungary during World War II and Soviet occupation of Hungary


Hungary 1941–44
The Germans and Italians granted Hungary a part of southern Czechoslovakia and Subcarpathia in the First Vienna Award of 1938, and then northern Transylvania in the Second Vienna Award of 1940. In 1941, the Hungarian army took part in the invasion of Yugoslavia, regaining some more territories. On 22 June 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union under Operation Barbarossa; Hungary joined the German effort and declared war on the Soviet Union, and formally entered World War II on the side of the Axis Powers. In late 1941, the Hungarian troops on the Eastern Front experienced success at the Battle of Uman. By 1943, after the Hungarian Second Army suffered extremely heavy losses at the River Don, the Hungarian government sought to negotiate a surrender with the Allies. In 1944, as a result of this duplicity, German troops occupied Hungary in what was known as Operation Margarethe. Miklós Horthy made a token effort to disengage Hungary from the war, but he was replaced by a puppet government under the pro-German Prime Minister Ferenc Szálasi of the Arrow Cross Party.


The Széchenyi Chain Bridge (foreground) and the Buda Castle (background) in ruins during the Siege of Budapest
In late 1944, Hungarian troops on the Eastern Front again experienced success at the Battle of Debrecen, but this was followed immediately by the Soviet invasion of Hungary and the Battle of Budapest. During the German occupation in May–June 1944, the Arrow Cross Party and Hungarian police deported nearly 440,000 Jews, mostly to Auschwitz. The Swedish Diplomat Raoul Wallenberg managed to save a considerable number of Hungarian Jews by giving them Swedish passports, but when the Soviets arrived, he was arrested as a spy and disappeared. Rudolf Kastner (original spelling Kasztner), one of the leaders of the Hungarian Aid and Rescue Committee, negotiated with senior SS officers such as Adolf Eichmann to allow a number of Jews to escape in exchange for money, gold, and diamonds. Other diplomats also organized false papers and safe houses for Jews in Budapest and hundreds of Hungarian people were executed by the Arrow Cross Party for sheltering Jews.
The war left Hungary devastated, destroying over 60% of the economy and causing huge loss of life. Many Hungarian men, women, and children were raped, murdered and executed or deported for slave labour by Czechoslovaks, Soviet Red Army troops, and Yugoslavs (mostly Serbian partisans and regular units)— by the end of the war approximately 500,000–650,000 people.needed
On 13 February 1945, the Hungarian capital city surrendered unconditionally. By the agreement between the Czechoslovakian president Edvard Beneš and Joseph Stalin, expulsions of Hungarians from Czechoslovakia and Slovaks from Hungary started. 250,000 ethnic Germans were also transferred to Germany pursuant to article XIII of the Potsdam Protocol of 2 August 1945.
The territories regained with the Vienna Awards and during World War II were again lost by Hungary with the Paris Peace Treaty in 1947.
Communist era 1947–1989
Main articles: Republic of Hungary (1946–1949), People's Republic of Hungary, and Hungarian Revolution of 1956


The head of the toppled Stalin Monument in Budapest during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956
Following the fall of Nazi Germany, Soviet troops occupied all of the country, and Hungary gradually became a communist satellite state of the Soviet Union.
An estimated 2,000 people were executed and over 100,000 were imprisoned. Approximately 350,000 officials and intellectuals were purged from 1948 to 1956. Many freethinkers and democrats were secretly arrested and taken to inland or foreign concentration camps without any judicial sentence. Some 600,000 Hungarians were deported to Soviet labour camps after the Second World War and at least 200,000 died in captivity.
Rákosi adhered to a militarist, industrialising, and war compensation economic policy, and the standard of living fell. The rule of the Rákosi government led to the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and Hungary's temporary withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact. The multi-party system was restored by Prime Minister Imre Nagy. Many people were shot and killed by Soviet and Hungarian political police (ÁVH) at peaceful demonstrations throughout the country, creating a nationwide uprising.
Spontaneous revolutionary militias fought against the Soviet Army and the ÁVH in Budapest. The roughly 3,000-strong Hungarian resistance fought Soviet tanks using Molotov cocktails and machine pistols. Though the preponderance of the Soviets was immense, they suffered heavy losses, and by 30 October most Soviet troops had withdrawn from Budapest to garrisons in the Hungarian countryside.
On 4 November 1956, the Soviets retaliated, sending in over 150,000 troops and 2,500 tanks. During the Hungarian uprising an estimated 20,000 people were killed, nearly all during the Soviet intervention. Nearly a quarter of a million people left the country during the brief time that the borders were open in 1956.
Kádár Era 1956–1988
See also: Goulash Communism
In the first days of November, the Soviet leadership was still undecided about the developments in Hungary, but soon the position prevailed that an intervention was necessary to prevent Hungary from breaking away from the Soviet bloc. János Kádár (Minister of State in the Imre Nagy cabinet) was chosen by the Soviet party leadership to act as the head of the new government intended to replace Imre Nagy's coalition cabinet. In the reprisals following the crushing of the uprising by the Soviet troops, 21,600 mavericks (democrats, liberals, and reformist communists) were imprisoned, 13,000 interned, and 230 brought to trial and executed.Imre Nagy, the legal Prime Minister of the country, was condemned to death and executed in 1958.
Following the invasion, Hungary was under Soviet military administration for a couple of months, but Kadar was capable of stabilizing the political situation in a remarkably short time. In 1963, general amnesty was granted and the majority of those imprisoned for their active participation in the uprising were released. Kadar proclaimed a new policy line according to which the people were no longer compelled to profess loyalty to the party if they tacitly accepted the Socialist regime as a fact of life, in other words "Those who are not against us are with us," as Kadar put it in one of his political speeches. Kádár introduced new planning priorities in the economy. Consumer goods and food were produced in greater volumes and military production was reduced to one-tenth of the pre-revolutionary level. This was followed in 1968 by the New Economic Mechanism (NEM), which introduced free market elements into Socialist command economy. From the 1960s through the late 1980s, Hungary was often referred to as "the happiest barrack" within the Eastern bloc. As a result of the relatively high standard of living, a more liberalised economy, a less oppressed press, and less restricted travel rights than elsewhere in the Eastern Bloc, Hungary was generally considered one of the more liberal countries in which to live in Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The third Hungarian Republic 1989–present
See also: Revolutions of 1989 and 2006 protests in Hungary

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Choose, please! – A 1990 political poster by Fidesz, depicting Leonid Brezhnev and Erich Honecker performing a traditional and widely known communist-style kiss-greeting and a kissing young couple.
In June 1988, 80,000 demonstrated against Romania's communist regime's plans to demolish Transylvanian villages. In March 1989, for the first time in decades, the government declared the anniversary of the 1848 Revolution a national holiday. Opposition demonstrations filled the streets of Budapest with more than 75,000 marchers. Premier Károly Grósz met Mikhail Gorbachev in Moscow, who accepted Hungary's moves toward a multi-party system and promised that the USSR would not interfere in Hungary's internal affairs. The Opposition Round Table Consultations with the representatives of the government, which was founded for the stated goal of introducing multi-party democracy, market economy and change of power, and defining its characteristics, started its sessions. In May, Hungary began taking down its barbed wire fence along the Austrian border – the first tear in the Iron Curtain.
June brought the reburial of former Prime Minister Imre Nagy, executed after the 1956 Revolution, drawing a crowd of 250,000 at the Heroes' Square. The last speaker, 26-year-old Viktor Orbán, publicly called for Soviet troops to leave Hungary. In September, Foreign Minister Gyula Horn announced that East German refugees in Hungary would not be repatriated but would instead be allowed to go to the West. The resulting exodus shook East Germany and hastened the fall of the Berlin Wall. On 23 October, Mátyás Szűrös declared Hungary a republic.
The majorities in the decisive bodies of the state party agreed to give up their monopoly on power, paving the way for free elections in March 1990. The party's name was changed from the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party to simply the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP] and a new programme advocating social democracy and a free-market economy was adopted. This was not enough to shake off the stigma of four decades of autocratic rule, however, and the 1990 election was won by the centre-right Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF), which advocated a gradual transition towards capitalism. The liberal Alliance of Free Democrats (SZDSZ), which had called for much faster change, came second and the Socialist Party trailed far behind. As Gorbachev looked on, Hungary changed political systems with scarcely a murmur and the last Soviet troops left Hungary in June 1991. In coalition with two smaller parties, the MDF provided Hungary with sound government during its hard transition to a full market economy.
The economic changes of the early 1990s resulted in declining living standards for most people in Hungary. In 1991 most state subsidies were removed, leading to a severe recession exacerbated by the fiscal austerity necessary to reduce inflation and stimulate investment. This made life difficult for many Hungarians, and in the May 1994 elections the Hungarian Socialist Party led by former Communists won an absolute majority in parliament.
All three main political parties advocated economic liberalisation and closer ties with the West. In 1998, the European Union began negotiations with Hungary on full membership. In a 2003 national referendum, 85% voted in favour of Hungary joining the European Union, which followed on 1 May 2004.
Geography



The Danube Bend is a curve of the Danube near the city of Visegrád. The Transdanubian Mountains lie on the right bank (left side of the picture), while the North Hungarian Mountains on the left bank (right side of the picture).
Main article: Geography of Hungary
See also: List of national parks of Hungary


Hills in Baranya county


Great Hungarian Plain


Lake Balaton in winter
Hungary lies between latitudes 45° and 49° N, and longitudes 16° and 23° E.
Slightly more than one half of Hungary's landscape consists of flat to rolling plains of the Pannonian Basin: the most important plain regions include the Little Hungarian Plain in the west, and the Great Hungarian Plain in the southeast. The highest elevation above sea level on the latter is only 183 metres (600 ft).
Transdanubia is a primarily hilly region with a terrain varied by low mountains. These include the very eastern stretch of the Alps, Alpokalja, in the west of the country, the Transdanubian Mountains, in the central region of Transdanubia, and the Mecsek Mountains and Villány Mountains in the south. The highest point of the area is the Írott-kő in the Alps, at 882 metres (2,894 ft).
The highest mountains of the country are located in the Carpathians: these lie in the North Hungarian Mountains, in a wide band along the Slovakian border (highest point: the Kékes at 1,014 m/3,327 ft).
Hungary is divided in two by its main waterway, the Danube (Duna); other large rivers include the Tisza and Dráva, while Transdanubia contains Lake Balaton, a major body of water. The largest thermal lake in the world, Lake Hévíz (Hévíz Spa), is located in Hungary. The second largest lake in the Carpathian Basin is the artificial Lake Tisza (Tisza-tó).
Phytogeographically, Hungary belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF, the territory of Hungary belongs to the ecoregion of Pannonian mixed forests.
Hungary has 10 national parks, 145 minor nature reserves and 35 landscape protection areas.
Climate
Hungary has a continental climate, with hot summers with low overall humidity levels but frequent rainshowers and mildly cold snowy winters. Average annual temperature is 9.7 °C (49.5 °F). Temperature extremes are about 41.9 °C (107.4 °F) on 20 Jul 2007 at Kiskunhalas in the summer and −35 °C (−31.0 °F) on 16 Feb 1940 Miskolc-Görömbölytapolca in the winter. Average high temperature in the summer is 23 °C (73.4 °F) to 28 °C (82 °F) and average low temperature in the winter it is −3 °C (27 °F) to −7 °C (19 °F). The average yearly rainfall is approximately 600 mm (23.6 in). A small, southern region of the country near Pécs enjoys a reputation for a Mediterranean climate, but in reality it is only slightly warmer than the rest of the country and still receives snow during the winter.
Hungary is ranked sixth in an environmental protection index by GW/CAN.
Politics

Main article: Politics of Hungary


The Hungarian Parliament in Budapest
The President of the Republic, elected by the members of the National Assembly every five years, has a largely ceremonial role, but he is nominally the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces and his powers include the nomination of the Prime Minister who is to be elected by a majority of the votes of the Members of Parliament, based on the recommendation made by the President of the Republic.
By the Hungarian Constitution, based on the post-WWII Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Prime Minister has a leading role in the executive branch as he selects Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive right to dismiss them (similarly to the competences of the German federal chancellor). Each cabinet nominee appears before one or more parliamentary committees in consultative open hearings, survive a vote by the Parliament and must be formally approved by the president.
A controversial constitutional change in force from 1 January 2012 repealed the words "Republic of" from the country's official name.
The unicameral, 386-member National Assembly (Országgyűlés) is the highest organ of state authority and initiates and approves legislation sponsored by the Prime Minister. Its members are elected for a four-year term. 176 members are elected in single-seat constituencies, 152 by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies, and 58 so-called compensation seats are distributed based on the number of votes "lost" (i.e., the votes that did not produce a seat) in either the single-seat or the multi-seat constituencies. The election threshold is 5%, but it only applies to the multi-seat constituencies and the compensation seats, not the single-seat constituencies.
A 15-member Constitutional Court has power to challenge legislation on grounds of unconstitutionality.
Political parties
Main article: List of political parties in Hungary
Military

Main article: Military of Hungary


Hungarian Ground Forces welcome the President of the United States. Mounted hussars can be seen along the top.
The Military of Hungary, or "Hungarian Armed Forces" currently has two branches, the "Hungarian Ground Force" and the "Hungarian Air Force". The Hungarian Ground Force (or Army) is known as the "Corps of Homeland Defenders" (Honvédség). This term was originally used to refer to the revolutionary army established by Lajos Kossuth and the National Defence Committee of the Revolutionary Hungarian Diet in September 1848 during the Hungarian Revolution.
Hussar: A type of irregular light horsemen was already well established by the 15th century in medieval Hungary. Hussar refers to a number of types of light cavalry created in Hungary in the 15th century and used throughout Europe and even in America since the 18th century. Some modern military units retain the title 'hussar' for reasons of tradition.
Administrative divisions

Main articles: Counties of Hungary, Regions of Hungary, and Subregions of Hungary
Administratively, Hungary is divided into 19 counties. In addition, the capital (főváros), Budapest, is independent of any county government. The counties and the capital are the 20 NUTS third-level units of Hungary.
The counties are further subdivided into 174 (1 January 2011.) subregions (kistérségek), and Budapest is its own subregion. Since 1996, the counties and City of Budapest have been grouped into 7 regions for statistical and development purposes. These seven regions constitute NUTS' second-level units of Hungary.


Regions of Hungary with their regional centres
There are also 23 towns with county rights (singular megyei jogú város), sometimes known as "urban counties" in English (although there is no such term in Hungarian). The local authorities of these towns have extended powers, but these towns belong to the territory of the respective county instead of being independent territorial units.
Regions
Northern Hungary
Northern Great Plain
Central Hungary
Central Transdanubia
Western Transdanubia
Southern Transdanubia
Southern Great Plain
Counties (county seats)
Bács-Kiskun (Kecskemét)
Baranya (Pécs)
Békés (Békéscsaba)
Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén (Miskolc)
Csongrád (Szeged)
Fejér (Székesfehérvár)
Győr-Moson-Sopron (Győr)
Hajdú-Bihar (Debrecen)
Heves (Eger)
Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok (Szolnok)
Komárom-Esztergom (Tatabánya)
Nógrád (Salgótarján)
Pest (Budapest)
Somogy (Kaposvár)
Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg (Nyíregyháza)
Tolna (Szekszárd)
Vas (Szombathely)
Veszprém (Veszprém)
Zala (Zalaegerszeg)
Budapest, capital
Foreign relations
Main article: Foreign relations of Hungary
Economy

Main article: Economy of Hungary


Hungarian National Bank
Hungary held its first multi-party elections in 1990, following four decades of Communist rule, and has succeeded in transforming its centrally planned economy into a market economy. Both foreign ownership of and foreign investment in Hungarian firms are widespread. Hungary has a requirement to reduce government spending and further reform its economy in order to meet the 2020 target date for accession to the euro zone.

Highest-value banknote of the Hungarian Forint (obverse)
The private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP. Hungary gets nearly one third of all foreign direct investment flowing into Central Europe, with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling more than US$185 billion since 1989. It enjoys strong trade, fiscal, monetary, investment, business, and labor freedoms. The top income tax rate is fairly high, but coporate taxes are low. Inflation is low, it was on the rise in the past few years, but it is now starting to regulate. Investment in Hungary is reported to be "easy", although it is subject to government licensing in security-sensitive areas. Foreign capital enjoys virtually the same protections and privileges as domestic capital. The rule of law is strong, a professional judiciary protects property rights, and the level of corruption is low.
The Hungarian economy is a medium-sized, structurally, politically, and institutionally open economy in Central Europe and is part of the EU single market. Like most Eastern European economies, it experienced market liberalisation in the early 1990s as part of a transition away from communism.
Today, Hungary is a full member of OECD and the World Trade Organization.
OECD was the first international organization to accept Hungary as a full member in 1996, after six years of successful cooperation.
Hungarian economy today


Hungary is a member of the Schengen Area and the EU single market.
Hungary, as a member state of the European Union may seek to adopt the common European currency, the Euro. To achieve this, Hungary would need to fulfill the Maastricht criteria.
In foreign investments, Hungary has seen a shift from lower-value textile and food industry to investment in luxury vehicle production, renewable energy systems, high-end tourism, information technology.
The austerity measures introduced by the government are in part an attempt to fulfill the Maastricht criteria.
The austerity measures include a 2% rise in social security contributions, half of which is paid by employees, and a large increase in the minimum rate of sales tax (levied on food and basic services) from 15 to 20%.
Hungary, which joined the European Union in 2004, has been hit hard by the late-2000s recession because of its heavy dependence on foreign capital to finance its economy and has one of the biggest public deficits in the EU.
Total government spending is high. Many state-owned enterprises have not been privatized. Business licensing is a problemwhom?, as regulations are not applied consistently. According to the conservative think tank Heritage Foundation, Hungary's economy was 67.2% "free" in 2008, which makes it the world's 43rd-freest economy. Its overall score is 1% lower than last year, partially reflecting new methodological detail. Hungary is ranked 25th out of 41 countries in the European region, and its overall score is slightly lower than the regional average.
In 2011 Hungarian economy showed signs of recovery with decreasing tax rates and a moderate 1.7 percent GDP growth from the previous financial crisis, however, in November 2011 Moody’s has downgraded Hungary's sovereign credit rating to Ba1, just below investment grade, because of mounting financial-sector funding pressures and the general government debt which is of 81% of GDP (2010). Economic reform measures such as health care reform, tax reform, and local government financing are being addressed by the present government.
Education

Main article: Education in Hungary
In the year 1276 the university of Veszprém was destroyed by the troops of Péter Csák and it was never rebuilt. A university was established in Pécs 1367. Sigismund established a university at Óbuda in 1395. Another, Universitas Istropolitana, was established 1465 in Pozsony by Mattias Corvinus. Nagyszombat University was founded in 1635 and moved 1777 to Buda and is today called Eötvös Loránd University. The world's first institute of technology was founded in Selmecbánya, Kingdom of Hungary (since 1920 Banská Štiavnica, now Slovakia) in 1735. Its legal successor is University of Miskolc in Hungary. The Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME) is considered the oldest institute of technology in the world with university rank and structure. Its legal predecessor was founded in 1782 by Emperor Joseph II.
Science and technology


John von Neumann, one of the greatest mathematicians in modern history, mostly known for his contributions to digital computing and quantum theory.


Albert Szent-Györgyi, Nobel laureate physiologist; discoverer of vitamin C
Hungary is famous for its excellent mathematics education which has trained numerous outstanding scientists. Famous Hungarian mathematicians include father Farkas Bolyai and son János Bolyai, designer of modern geometry (non-Euclidian geometry) 1820–1823. Paul Erdős, famed for publishing in over forty languages and whose Erdős numbers are still tracked; and John von Neumann, Quantum Theory, Game theory a pioneer of digital computing and the key mathematician in the Manhattan Project. Many Hungarian scientists, including Erdős, von Neumann, Leo Szilard, Eugene Wigner and Edward Teller emigrated to the US. Thirteen Hungarian or Hungarian-born scientists received the Nobel Prize, all of whom emigrated, mostly because of persecution of communist and/or fascist regimes. Contemporary, internationally well-known Hungarian scientists include: mathematician László Lovász, physicist Albert-László Barabási, physicist Ferenc Krausz, biochemist Árpád Pusztai.
Hungarian inventions


Rubik's Cube
The English word "coach" came from the Hungarian kocsi ("wagon from Kocs" referring to the village in Hungary where coaches were first made).
Wolfgang von Kempelen invented a manually operated speaking machine in 1769.
János Irinyi invented the noiseless match.
In 1827 Ányos Jedlik invented the electric motor. He created the first device to contain the three main components of practical direct current motors: the stator, rotor and commutator.
Donát Bánki and János Csonka invented the Carburetor for the stationary engine.
Ottó Bláthy, Miksa Déri and Károly Zipernowsky invented the modern transformer in 1885.
Kálmán Kandó invented the Three-phase Alternating Current Electric locomotive, and was a pioneer in the development of electric railway traction.
Tivadar Puskás invented the Telephone Exchange.
Loránd Eötvös: weak equivalence principle and surface tension
Albert Szent-Györgyi discovered Vitamin C and created the first artificial vitamin.(Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937)
Theodore Kármán - Mathematical tools to study fluid flow and mathematical background of supersonic flight and inventor of swept-back wings, "father of Supersonic Flight"
Leó Szilárd: hypothesized the nuclear chain reaction (therefore he was the first who realized the feasibility of an atomic bomb), patented the Nuclear reactor, invented the Electron microscope
Dennis Gabor invented the Holography (Nobel Prize in Physics in 1971)
László Bíró invented ballpoint pen
Edward Teller hypothesized the thermonuclear fusion and the theory of the hydrogen bomb
Ernő Rubik invented the Rubik's Cube
Transport

Main article: Transport in Hungary


M7 motorway near Budaörs


Keleti Railway Station, Budapest, the largest railway station in Hungary.


Motorway (red) and semi-motorway (orange) network of Hungary (2010)
Hungary has a highly developed road, railway, air and water transport system. Budapest, the capital of the state, serves as an important node in the public transport network.
The Hungarian railway system is centralized around Budapest, where the three main railway stations are the Eastern (Keleti), the Western (Nyugati) and the Southern (Déli). Déli is the most modern but Keleti and Nyugati are more decorative and architecturally impressive. Other important railway stations countrywide include Szolnok (the most important railway junction outside Budapest), Tiszai Railway Station in Miskolc and the stations of Pécs, Győr, Szeged and Székesfehérvár.
Four Hungarian cities have tram networks, and the four cities are Budapest, Debrecen, Miskolc and Szeged . The Budapest Metro is the second-oldest underground metro system in the world, and its iconic Line 1 (dating from 1896) was declared a World Heritage Site in 2002. The system consists of three lines (the fourth being under construction). Budapest also has a suburban railway service in and around the city (HÉV).
Hungary has a total length of approximately 1,314 km (816.48 mi) motorways (Hungarian: autópálya). Motorway sections are being added to the existing network, which already connects many major economically important cities to the capital.
The most important port is Budapest. Other important ones include Dunaújváros and Baja.
There are five international airports in Hungary. Budapest Liszt Ferenc, Debrecen, Sármellék (also called FlyBalaton for its proximity to Lake Balaton, Hungary's number one tourist attraction), Győr-Pér and Pécs-Pogány. The national carrier, Malév Hungarian Airlines operated flights to over 60, mostly European cities, but ceased operations on 3 February 2012.
Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Hungary
Due to migrations and significant territorial changes, the demographics of Hungary have significantly fluctuated over time. In modern times, Hungary has become an ethnically homogeneous state. According to the 2001 Hungarian Census, Hungarians constituted 92.3%, whilst the largest minority are the Roma people (1.9%).
Ethnic composition of Hungary
(census 2001)
Hungarians

92.3%
Roma

1.9%
Germans
0.6%
Others

5.2%
Language


Present-day regions in Europe where the Hungarian language is spoken.


The Old Hungarian script, the so-called "Rovás alphabet" The country switched to using the Latin language and alphabet under king saint Stephen (reigned: 997–1038), and until as late as 1844, Latin remained the official language of Hungary
.
93.6% of the population speak Hungarian, a Uralic language unrelated to any neighboring language and distantly related to Finnish and Estonian. The main minority group are the Roma. Other groups include: Germans, Slovaks, Croats and Bunjevcis, Romanians, Ukrainians, Serbs and Slovenes. A fringe theory that is well known by linguists is that the Hungarian language is a descendant of Sumerian. Some linguists and historians (like Ida Bobula, Ferenc Badiny Jós, dr Tibor Baráth and others) have published this theory. There are some artifacts which they claim support this view (like the Tartaria tablets). Mainstream linguists reject the Sumerian theory as pseudoscience. Hungarian has often been claimed to be related to Hunnish, since Hungarian legends and histories show close ties between the two peoples; also, the name Hunor is preserved in legends and (along with a few Hunnic-origin names, such as Attila) is still used as a given name in Hungary. Many people share the belief that the Székelys, a Hungarian ethnic group living in Romania, are descended from the Huns.
Religion
Main article: History of Christianity in Hungary
See also: History of the Jews in Hungary and Bahá'í Faith in Hungary


Esztergom Basilica, the seat of the Catholic Church in Hungary
In the Eurostat – Eurobarometer poll of 2005, 44% of Hungarians answered that they believed there is a God, 31% answered they believed there is some sort of spirit or life force, and 19% that they do not believe there is a God, spirit, nor life force.
Religious affiliation in Hungary (2001)
Denominations Population % of total
Catholicism 5,558,901 54.5
Roman Catholics 5,289,521 51.9
Greek Catholics 268,935 2.6
Protestantism 1,985,576 19.5
Calvinists 1,622,796 15.9
Lutherans 304,705 3.0
Baptists 17,705 0.2
Unitarians 6,541 0.1
Other Protestants 33,829 0.3
Orthodox Christianity 15,298 0.1
Other Christians 24,340 0.2
Judaism 12,871 0.1
Other religions 13,567 0.1
All religions 7,610,553 74.6
No religion 1,483,369 14.5
Did not wish to answer 1,034,767 10.1
Unknown 69,566 0.7
total 10,198,315 100.00
The majority of Hungarians became Christian in the 11th century. Hungary's first king, Saint Stephen I, took up Western Christianity, although his mother, Sarolt, was baptized in the Eastern Rite. Hungary remained predominantly Catholic until the 16th century, when the Reformation took place and, as a result, first Lutheranism, then soon afterwards Calvinism, became the religion of almost the entire population.
In the second half of the 16th century, however, Jesuits led a successful campaign of counterreformation among the Hungarians. The Jesuits founded educational institutions, including Péter Pázmány Catholic University, the oldest university that still exists in Hungary, but organized so-called missions too in order to promote popular piety. By the 17th century, Hungary had once again become predominantly Catholic.needed
Some of the eastern parts of the country, however, especially around Debrecen ("the Calvinist Rome"), still have significant Protestant communities. Orthodox Christianity in Hungary has been the religion mainly of some national minorities in the country, notably, Romanians, Rusyns, Ukrainians, and Serbs.
Hungary has been the home of a sizable Armenian Catholic community as well. They worship according to the Armenian Rite, but they have united with the Catholic Church under the primacy of the Pope.
Faith Church is one of the Pentecostal churches, accepts the results and spiritual, moral values of both early Christianity and the Reformation, as well as other revival movements serving the progress of the Christian faith. Based on the 1% tax designation to churches, Faith Church is the seventh most supported church in Hungary. The weekly Sunday service of the Church is regularly broadcast in live television.
Historically, Hungary was home to a significant Jewish community, especially when many Jews, persecuted in Russia, found refuge in the Kingdom of Hungary during the 19th century. The census of January 1941 found that 6.2% of the population, i.e., 846,000 people, were considered Jewish according to the racial laws of that time. Of this number, 725,000 were considered religiously Jewish as well. Some Hungarian Jews were able to escape the Holocaust during World War II, but most (perhaps 550,000) either were deported to concentration camps, from which the majority did not return, or were murdered by the Hungarian Arrow Cross fascists. Most Jewish people who remain in Hungary live in the centre of Budapest, especially in district VI. The largest synagogue in Europe is located in Budapest.
Legislation at the end of 2011 vested in Parliament instead of the judiciary the power to grant the officially recognized status of a church. The number of registered churches fell from over 300 under previous legislation to 32. Among those dropped was the socially active Hungarian Evangelical Fellowship. The legislation was criticized as discriminatory in an invited Opinion by the Venice Commission.
Urbanization


Budapest

Debrecen

Szeged
Rank City County City Agglomeration Metro view talk edit

Miskolc

Pécs

Győr

Nyíregyháza
1 Budapest Budapest 1,733,685 2,539,828 3,104,259
2 Debrecen Hajdú-Bihar 208,016 234,928 254,008
3 Szeged Csongrád 170,275 210,477 238,992
4 Miskolc Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén 168,075 208,114 271,220
5 Pécs Baranya 157,721 178,215 208,221
6 Győr Győr-Moson-Sopron 131,267 180,007 204,029
7 Nyíregyháza Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg 117,852 134,055 158,007
8 Kecskemét Bács-Kiskun 113,275 145,104 205,973
9 Székesfehérvár Fejér 101,943 124,992 150,223
10 Szombathely Vas 79,590 119,800 -
11 Szolnok Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok 74,544 93,410 -
12 Tatabánya Komárom-Esztergom 70,169 130,012 -
13 Kaposvár Somogy 67,979 82,601 -
14 Érd Pest 65,043 -
15 Veszprém Veszprém 64,339 82,007 -
16 Békéscsaba Békés 64,074 148,888 -
17 Zalaegerszeg Zala 61,970 76,412 -
18 Sopron Győr-Moson-Sopron 60,755 70,012 -
19 Eger Heves 56,530 74,013 -
20 Nagykanizsa Zala 49,850 50,082 -

2011 census data
Culture

Main article: Culture of Hungary
Architecture
See also: List of Hungarian architects


Eszterháza, the "Hungarian Versailles"
Hungary is home to the largest synagogue in Europe (Great Synagogue), the largest medicinal bath in Europe (Széchenyi Medicinal Bath), one of the largest basilicas in Europe (Esztergom Basilica), the second largest territorial abbey in the world (Pannonhalma Archabbey), and the largest Early Christian Necropolis outside Italy (Pécs).
Notable architectural styles in Hungary include Historicism and Art Nouveau, or rather several variants of Art Nouveau. In contrast to Historicism, Hungarian Art Nouveau is based on the national architectural characteristics. Taking the eastern origins of the Hungarians into account, Ödön Lechner (1845–1914), the most important figure in Hungarian Art Nouveau, was initially inspired by Indian and Syrian architecture, and later by traditional Hungarian decorative designs. In this way, he created an original synthesis of architectural styles. By applying them to three-dimensional architectural elements, he produced a version of Art Nouveau that was specific to Hungary.


Museum of Applied Art: This Art Nouveau building was built to the plans of Ödön Lechner.
Turning away from the style of Lechner, yet taking inspiration from his approach, the group of "Young People" (Fiatalok), which included Károly Kós and Dezsö Zrumeczky, were to use the characteristic structures and forms of traditional Hungarian architecture to achieve the same end.
Besides the two principal styles, Budapest also displays local versions of trends originating from other European countries. The Sezession from Vienna, the German Jugendstil, Art Nouveau from Belgium and France, and the influence of English and Finnish architecture are all reflected in the buildings constructed at the turn of the 20th century. Béla Lajta initially adopted Lechner's style, subsequently drawing his inspiration from English and Finnish trends; after developing an interest in the Egyptian style, he finally arrived at modern architecture. Aladár Árkay took almost the same route. István Medgyaszay developed his own style, which differed from Lechner's, using stylised traditional motifs to create decorative designs in concrete. In the sphere of applied arts, those chiefly responsible for promoting the spread of Art Nouveau were the School and Museum of Decorative Arts, which opened in 1896.
Foreigners have unexpectedly "discovered" that a significantly large portion of the citizens live in old and architecturally valuable buildings. In the Budapest downtown area almost all the buildings are about hundred years old, with thick walls, high ceiling and motifs on the front wall.
Music
Main article: Music of Hungary


Hungarian State Opera House
The music of Hungary consists mainly of traditional Hungarian folk music and music by prominent composers such as Liszt and Bartók, considered as the greatest Hungarian composers. Other composers of international renown are Dohnányi, Franz Schmidt, Zoltán Kodály, Gabriel von Wayditch, Rudolf Wagner-Régeny, László Lajtha, Franz Lehár, Imre Kálmán, Sándor Veress and Rózsa. Hungarian traditional music tends to have a strong dactylic rhythm, as the language is invariably stressed on the first syllable of each word. Hungary also has a number of internationally renowned composers of contemporary classical music, György Ligeti, György Kurtág, Péter Eötvös, Zoltán Kodály and Zoltán Jeney among them. One of the greatest Hungarian composers, Béla Bartók was also among the most significant musicians of the 20th century. His music was invigorated by the themes, modes, and rhythmic patterns of the Hungarian and neighboring folk music traditions he studied, which he synthesized with influences from his contemporaries into his own distinctive style.


Ferenc (Franz) Liszt, one of the greatest pianists of all time; well-known composer and conductor
Hungary has made many contributions to the fields of folk, popular and classical music. Hungarian folk music is a prominent part of the national identity and continues to play a major part in Hungarian music. Hungarian folk music has been significant in former country parts that belong – since the 1920 Treaty of Trianon – to neighboring countries such as Romania, Slovakia, southern Poland and especially in southern Slovakia and the Transylvania: both regions have significant numbers of Hungarians. After the establishment of a music academy led by Ferenc Erkel and Franz Liszt Hungary produced an important number of art musicians:
Pianists: Ernö von Dohnányi, Ervin Nyíregyházi, Andor Földes, Tamás Vásáry, Gyorgy Sandor, Géza Anda, György Cziffra, Edward Kilényi, Balint Vazsonyi, András Schiff, Zoltán Kocsis, Dezsö Ránki, Jenö Jandó and others.
Violists: Joseph Joachim, Leopold Auer, Jenö Hubay, Jelly d'Arányi, Joseph Szigeti, Sándor Végh, Emil Telmanyi, Zathurecky, Zsigmondy, Franz von Vecsey, Zoltán Szekely, Tibor Varga and newcomers Antal Szalai, Vilmos Szabadi, Kristóf Baráti (b. 79) and others.
organists: Varnus Xaver
Opera singers: Astrid Varnay, József Simándy, Julia Varady, Julia Hamari, Kolos Kováts (Bluebeard in Bartoks Bluebeard)
Conductors: Eugene Ormandy, George Szell, Antal Doráti, János Ferencsik, Fritz Reiner, sir Georg Solti, István Kertész, Ferenc Fricsay, Zoltán Rozsnyai, Sándor Végh, Arpad Joó, Ádám Fischer, Iván Fischer, Péter Eötvös, Zoltán Kocsis, Tamás Vásáry, Gilbert Varga and others
String Quartets: Budapest Quartet, Hungarian Quartet, Végh Quartet, Takács Quartet, Kodály Quartet, Eder Quartet, Festetics Quartet,


Béla Bartók, a composer of utmost importance from the early 20th century; one of the founders of ethnomusicology
Broughton claims that Hungary's "infectious sound has been surprisingly influential on neighboring countries (thanks perhaps to the common Austro-Hungarian history) and it's not uncommon to hear Hungarian-sounding tunes in Romania, Slovakia and southern Poland". It is also strong in the Szabolcs-Szatmár area and in the southwest part of Transdanubia, near the border with Croatia. The Busójárás carnival in Mohács is a major Hungarian folk music event, formerly featuring the long-established and well-regarded Bogyiszló orchestra.
Hungarian classical music has long been an "experiment, made from Hungarian antedecents and on Hungarian soil, to create a conscious musical culture the musical world of the folk song". Although the Hungarian upper class has long had cultural and political connections with the rest of Europe, leading to an influx of European musical ideas, the rural peasants maintained their own traditions such that by the end of the 19th century Hungarian composers could draw on rural peasant music to (re)create a Hungarian classical style. For example, Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály, two of Hungary's best known composers, used folk themes in their music. Bartók collected folk songs from across Eastern Europe, including Romania and Slovakia, whilst Kodály was more interested in creating a distinctively Hungarian musical style.
During the era of Communist rule in Hungary (1944–1989) a Song Committee scoured and censored popular music for traces of subversion and ideological impurity. Since then, however, the Hungarian music industry has begun to recover, producing successful performers in the fields of jazz such as trumpeter Rudolf Tomsits, pianist-composer Károly Binder and, in a modernized form of Hungarian folk, Ferenc Sebő and Márta Sebestyén. The three giants of Hungarian rock, Illés, Metró and Omega, remain very popular, especially Omega, which has followings in Germany and beyond as well as in Hungary. Older veteran underground bands such as Beatrice from the 1980s also remain popular.
Literature
Main article: Hungarian literature


The oldest survivng Hungarian (and Uralic) poem, Old Hungarian Laments of Mary
In the earliest times Hungarian language was written in a runic-like script (although it was not used for literature purposes in the modern interpretation). The country switched to the Latin alphabet after being Christianized under the reign of Stephen I of Hungary (1000–1038).
The oldest remained written record in Hungarian language is a fragment in the founding document of the Abbey of Tihany (1055) which contains several Hungarian terms, among them the words feheruuaru rea meneh hodu utu rea, "up the military road to Fehérvár" The rest of the document was written in Latin.
The oldest remained complete text in Hungarian language is the Funeral Sermon and Prayer (Halotti beszéd és könyörgés) (1192–1195), a translation of a Latin sermon.
The oldest remained poem in Hungarian is the Old Hungarian Laments of Mary (Ómagyar Mária-siralom), also a (not very strict) translation from Latin, from the 13th century. It is also the oldest surviving Uralic poem.
Among the first chronicles about Hungarian history were Gesta Hungarorum ("Deeds of the Hungarians") by the unknown author usually called Anonymus, and Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum ("Deeds of the Huns and the Hungarians") by Simon Kézai. Both are in Latin. These chronicles mix history with legends, so historically they are not always authentic. Another chronicle is the Képes krónika (Illustrated Chronicle), which was written for Louis the Great.


Chronicon Pictum
Renaissance literature flourished under the reign of King Matthias (1458–1490). Janus Pannonius, although he wrote in Latin, counts as one of the most important persons in Hungarian literature, being the only significant Hungarian Humanist poet of the period. The first printing house was also founded during Matthias' reign, by András Hess, in Buda. The first book printed in Hungary was the Chronica Hungarorum. The most important poets of the period was Bálint Balassi (1554–1594) and Miklós Zrínyi (1620–1664). Balassi's poetry shows Mediaeval influences, his poems can be divided into three sections: love poems, war poems and religious poems. Zrínyi's most significant work, the epic Szigeti veszedelem ("Peril of Sziget", written in 1648/49) is written in a fashion similar to the Iliad, and recounts the heroic Battle of Szigetvár, where his great-grandfather died while defending the castle of Szigetvár. Among the religious literary works the most important is the Bible translation by Gáspár Károli (The second Hungarian Bible translation in the history), the Protestant pastor of Gönc, in 1590. The translation is called the Bible of Vizsoly, after the town where it was first published. (See Hungarian Bible translations for more details.)
The Hungarian enlightenment took place about fifty years after the French enlightenment. The first enlightened writers were Maria Theresia's bodyguards (György Bessenyei, János Batsányi and others). The greatest poets of the time were Mihály Csokonai Vitéz and Dániel Berzsenyi. The greatest figure of the language reform was Ferenc Kazinczy. The Hungarian language became feasible for all type of scientific explanations from this time, and furthermore many new words were coined for describing new inventions.
Hungarian literature has recently gained some renown outside the borders of Hungary (mostly through translations into German, French and English). Some modern Hungarian authors have become increasingly popular in Germany and Italy especially Sándor Márai, Péter Esterházy, Péter Nádas and Imre Kertész. The latter is a contemporary Jewish writer who survived the Holocaust and won the Nobel Prize for literature in 2002. The older classics of Hungarian literature and Hungarian poetry have remained almost totally unknown outside Hungary. János Arany, a famous 19th century Hungarian poet is still much loved in Hungary (especially his collection of Ballads), among several other "true classics" like Sándor Petőfi, the poet of the Revolution of 1848, Endre Ady, Mihály Babits, Dezső Kosztolányi, Attila József and János Pilinszky. Other well-known Hungarian authors are Ferenc Móra, Géza Gárdonyi, Zsigmond Móricz, Gyula Illyés, Albert Wass and Magda Szabó.
Cuisine
Main article: Cuisine of Hungary
See also: Hungarian wine and Hungarian beer


Dobos cake at the Café Gerbeaud
The Hungarian cuisine is a prominent feature of the Hungarian culture, just like the art of hospitality. Traditional dishes such as the world famous Goulash (gulyás stew or gulyás soup) feature prominently. Dishes are often flavoured with paprika (ground red peppers), a Hungarian innovation. Thick, heavy Hungarian sour cream called tejföl is often used to soften the dishes flavour. The famous Hungarian hot river fish soup called Fisherman's soup or halászlé is usually a rich mixture of several kinds of poached fish. Other dishes are Chicken Paprikash, Foie gras made of goose liver, pörkölt stew, vadas, (game stew with vegetable gravy and dumplings), trout with almonds and salty and sweet dumplings, like túrós csusza, (dumplings with fresh quark cheese and thick sour cream). Desserts include the iconic Dobos Cake, Strudels (rétes), filled with apple, cherry, poppy seed or cheese, Gundel pancake, plum dumplings (szilvás gombóc), somlói dumplings, dessert soups like chilled Sour cherry soup and sweet chestnut puree, gesztenyepüré (cooked chestnuts mashed with sugar and rum and split into crumbs, topped with whipped cream). Perec and kifli are widely popular pastries.


Hortobágyi palacsinta in Sopron
The csárda is the most distinctive type of Hungarian inn, an old-style tavern offering traditional cuisine and beverages. Borozó usually denotes a cozy old-fashioned wine tavern, pince is a beer or wine cellar and a söröző is a pub offering draught beer and sometimes meals. The bisztró is an inexpensive restaurant often with self-service. The büfé is the cheapest place, although one may have to eat standing at a counter. Pastries, cakes and coffee are served at the confectionery called cukrászda, while an eszpresszó is a cafeteria.
Pálinka: is a fruit brandy, distilled from fruit grown in the orchards situated on the Great Hungarian Plain. It is a spirit native to Hungary and comes in a variety of flavours including apricot (barack) and cherry (cseresznye). However, plum (szilva) is the most popular flavour. Beer: Beer goes well with many traditional Hungarian dishes. The five main Hungarian brands are: Borsodi, Soproni, Arany Ászok, Kõbányai, and Dreher.


The famous Tokay wine. It was called "Vinum Regum, Rex Vinorum" ("Wine of Kings, King of Wines") by Louis XV of France.
Wine: As Hugh Johnson says in The History of Wine, the territory of Hungary is ideal for wine-making. Since the fall of communism there has been a renaissance of Hungarian wine-making. The choice of good wine is widening from year to year. The country can be divided to six wine regions: North-Transdanubia, Lake Balaton, South-Pannónia, Duna-region or Alföld, Upper-Hungary and Tokaj-Hegyalja. Hungarian wine regions offer a great variety of style: the main products of the country are elegant and full-bodied dry whites with good acidity, although complex sweet whites (Tokaj), elegant (Eger) and full-bodied robust reds (Villány and Szekszárd). The main varieties are: Olaszrizling, Hárslevelű, Furmint, Pinot gris or Szürkebarát, Chardonnay (whites), Kékfrankos (or Blaufrankisch in German), Kadarka, Portugieser, Zweigelt, Cabernet sauvignon, Cabernet franc and Merlot. The most famous wines from Hungary are Tokaji Aszú and Egri Bikavér.
Tokaji: Tokaji, meaning "of Tokaj", or "from Tokaj" in Hungarian, is used to label wines from the wine region of Tokaj-Hegyalja in Hungary. Tokaji wine has received accolades from numerous great writers and composers including Beethoven, Liszt, Schubert and Goethe; Joseph Haydn's favorite wine was a Tokaji. Louis XV and Frederick the Great tried to outdo one another in the excellence of the vintages they stocked when they treated guests like Voltaire to some Tokaji. Napoleon III, the last Emperor of the French, ordered 30–40 barrels of Tokaji for the Court every year. Gustav III, King of Sweden, never had any other wine to drink. In Russia, customers included Peter the Great and Empress Elizabeth of Russia.
Zwack Unicum: For over 150 years, a blend of 40 Hungarian herbs has been used to create the liqueur Unicum. Unicum is a bitter, dark-coloured liqueur that can be drunk as an apéritif or after a meal, thus helping the digestion. The recipe is held secret by the Zwack family.
Recreation


Lake Hévíz, the largest thermal lake in Europe
Hungary is a land of thermal water. A passion for spa culture and Hungarian history have been connected from the very beginning. Hungarian spas feature Roman, Greek, Turkish, and northern country architectural elements.
Because of an advantageous geographical location, thermal water can be found with good quality and in great quantities on over 80% of Hungary's territory. Approximately 1,500 thermal springs can be found in Hungary. There are approximately 450 public baths in Hungary.
The Romans heralded the first age of spa in Hungary, the remains of their bath complexes are still to be seen in Óbuda, to this day. The spa culture was revived during the Turkish Invasion who used the thermal springs of Buda for the construction of a number of bathhouses, some of which are still functioning (Király Baths, Rudas Baths).
In the 19th century, the advancement in deep drilling and medical science provided the springboard for a further leap in bathing culture. Grand spas such as Gellért Baths, Lukács Baths, Margaret Island, and Széchenyi Medicinal Bath are a reflection of this resurgence in popularity.
Folk art


Romanesque Church in village Ócsa
Ugrós (Jumping dances): Old style dances dating back to the Middle Ages. Solo or couple dances accompanied by old style music, shepherd and other solo man's dances from Transylvania, and marching dances along with remnants of medieval weapon dances belong in this group.
Karikázó: a circle dance performed by women only accompanied by singing of folksongs.
Csárdás: New style dances developed in the 18–19th centuries is the Hungarian name for the national dances, with Hungarian embroidered costumes and energetic music. From the men's intricate bootslapping dances to the ancient women's circle dances, Csárdás demonstrates the infectious exuberance of the Hungarian folk dancing still celebrated in the villages.
Verbunkos: a solo man's dance evolved from the recruiting performances of the Austro-Hungarian army.
The Legényes: is a men's solo dance done by the ethnic Hungarian people living in the Kalotaszeg region of Transylvania. Although usually danced by young men, it can be also danced by older men. The dance is performed freestyle usually by one dancer at a time in front of the band. Women participate in the dance by standing in lines to the side and sing/shout verses while the men dance. Each lad does a number of points (dance phrases) typically 4 to 8 without repetition. Each point consists of 4 parts, each lasting 4 counts. The first part is usually the same for everyone (there are only a few variations).


Woman's folk Costume
It was in the beginning of the 18th century that the present style of Hungarian folk art took shape, incorporating both Renaissance and Baroque elements, depending on the area, as well as Persian Sassanide influences. Flowers and leaves, sometimes a bird or a spiral ornament, are the principal decorative themes. The most frequent ornament is a flower with a centerpiece resembling the eye of a peacock's feather.


Hungarian traditional dressing, 1831
Nearly all the manifestations of folk art practiced elsewhere in Europe also flourished among the Magyar peasantry at one time or another, their ceramics and textile being the most highly developed of all.
The finest achievements in their textile arts are the embroideries which vary from region to region. Those of Kalotaszeg in Transylvania are charming products of Oriental design, sewn chiefly in a single color – red, blue, or black. Soft in line, the embroideries are applied on altar cloths, pillow cases and sheets.
In Hungary proper Sárköz in Transdanubia and the Matyóföld in the Great Hungarian Plain produce the finest embroideries. In the Sárköz region the women's caps show black and white designs as delicate as lace and give evidence of the people's wonderfully subtle artistic feeling. The embroidery motifs applied to women's wear have also been transposed to tablecloths and runners suitable for modern use as wall decorations.
These vessels, made of black clay, reflect more than three hundred years of traditional Transdanubian folk patterns and shapes. No two are precisely alike, since all work is done by hand, including both the shaping and the decorating. The imprints are made by the thumb or a finger of the ceramist who makes the piece.
Porcelain
Main articles: Herend Porcelain and Zsolnay


Herend Porcelain's "Chinese" pattern
Founded in 1826, Herend Porcelain is one of the world's largest ceramic factories, specializing in luxury hand painted and gilded porcelain. In the mid-19th century it was purveyor to the Habsburg Dynasty and aristocratic customers throughout Europe. Many of its classic patterns are still in production. After the fall of communism in Hungary the factory was privatised and is now 75% owned by its management and workers, exporting to over 60 countries of the world.
Zsolnay Porcelain Manufacture is a Hungarian manufacturer of porcelain, pottery, ceramics, tiles, and stoneware. The company introduced the eosin glazing process and pyrogranite ceramics. The Zsolnay factory was established by Miklós Zsolnay in Pécs, Hungary, to produce stoneware and ceramics in 1853. In 1863, his son, Vilmos Zsolnay (1828–1900) joined the company and became its manager and director after several years. He led the factory to worldwide recognition by demonstrating its innovative products at world fairs and international exhibitions, including the 1873 World Fair in Vienna, then at the 1878 World Fair in Paris, where Zsolnay received a Grand Prix.
Sport


Football (soccer) legend Ferenc Puskás
Only seven countries (US, USSR, UK, France, Italy, China, and Germany) have won more Summer Olympic gold medals than Hungary. At the all time total medal count for Olympic Games, Hungary reaches the 9th ranking out of 211 participating nations, with a total of 465 medals. See All-time Olympic Games medal table (2008 data).
One of the reasons of this achievement is the Hungarians' success in water sports: in water polo the Hungarian team is the leading medal winner by a significant margin (See: Water polo at the Summer Olympics) and in swimming the men are fourth most successful overall while the women are eighth most successful overall. (See: List of Olympic medalists in swimming (men). List of Olympic medalists in swimming (women).) There has also been success in canoeing.
Some of the world's leading best Sabre (fencing) athletes have historically hailed from Hungary.
In 2009, the Hungarian national ice hockey team qualified for their first IIHF World Championship.
See also: Hungary national football team
Hungary has remarkable football history, having won three Olympic titles, finishing runners-up in the 1938 and 1954 FIFA World Cups, and third in the 1964 UEFA European Football Championship. Hungary revolutionized the sport in the 1950s, laying the tactical fundamentals of Total Football and dominating international football with the remarkable Golden Team which included legends like Ferenc Puskás, top goalscorer of the 20th century, whom FIFA dedicated its newest award, the Puskás Award. The side of that era has the all-time highest Football Elo Ranking in the world, with 2166, and one of the longest undefeated runs in football history, remaining unbeaten in 31 games, spanning over more than 4 years and including matches such as the Match of the Century.
The post-golden age decades saw a gradually weakening Hungary, though recently there is renewal in all aspects. The Hungarian Children's Football Federation was founded in 2008, as youth development thrives. For the first time in Hungarian football's history, they hosted the 2010 UEFA Futsal Championship in Budapest and Debrecen, the first time the MLSZ staged a UEFA finals tournament. Also, the national teams have produced some surprise successes such as beating Euro 2004 winner Greece 3–2 and 2006 FIFA World Cup winner Italy 3–1. Although they have not qualified for a major tournament's finals since 1986, they came semi-finalists at the 2008 European Under-19 Championship and qualified for the 2009 FIFA U-20 World Cup which saw their U-20 national team gaining third place to bring home Hungary's first major tournament medal in nearly half a century, feeding their hopes of a future revival.
Holidays and domestic animals
Main articles: Public holidays in Hungary and Hungarian animals
See also

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Outline of Hungary
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Public holidays in Hungary
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Curse of Turan
Healthcare in Hungary
History of the Jews in Hungary
Hungarian American
Hungarian castles and mansions
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Hungarian people
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Hungarians in Romania (Transylvania)
Hungarians in Slovakia
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Music of Hungary
Name days in Hungary
National symbols of Hungary
Old Hungarian script
Serbs in Hungary
Transportation in Hungary
Wendish question
Tourism in Hungary
Lists:
Common Hungarian surnames
Eastern name order used in Hungarian personal names
List of cities in Hungary
List of twin towns and sister cities in Hungary
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List of Hungarians
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Articles related to Hungary
Notes

^ The form of government was at times changed or ambiguous, causing short interruptions
References

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^ Csepeli, Gyorgy (2 June 2009). "The changing facets of Hungarian nationalism – Nationalism Reexamined | Social Research | Find Articles at BNET". Findarticles.com. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
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^ Paul Lendvai, The Hungarians: a thousand years of victory in defeat, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2003 Google Books
^ Peter N Stearns, The Oxford encyclopedia of the modern world, Volume 4, Oxford University Press, 2008, p. 64
^ Géza Jeszenszky: From "Eastern Switzerland" to Ethnic Cleansing, address at Duquesne History Forum, 17 November 2000, The author is former Ambassador of Hungary to the United States and was Foreign Minister in 1990 – 1994.
^ Kinga Frojimovics, Géza Komoróczy, Jewish Budapest: monuments, rites, history, Central European University Press, 1999 p.67 Google Books
^ François Bugnion, International Committee of the Red Cross, The International Committee of the Red Cross and the protection of war victims, Macmillan Education, 2003 Google Books
^ Molnar, A Concise History of Hungary, p. 262 online
^ Richard C. Frucht, Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture p. 359-360 online
^ Library of Congress country study on Hungary
^ J.Lee Ready (1995), World War Two. Nation by Nation, London, Cassell, page 130. ISBN 1-85409-290-1
^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum; Holocaust Encyclopedia". Ushmm.org. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
^ Alfred de Zayas "Raoul Wallenberg" in Dinah Shelton Encyclopedia of Genocide (Macmillan Reference 2005, vol. 3)
^ Braham, Randolph (2004): Rescue Operations in Hungary: Myths and Realities, East European Quarterly 38(2): 173–203.
^ Bauer, Yehuda (1994): Jews for Sale?, Yale University Press.
^ Bilsky, Leora (2004): Transformative Justice : Israeli Identity on Trial (Law, Meaning, and Violence), University of Michigan Press.
^ University of Chicago. Division of the Social Sciences, Human Relations Area Files, inc, A study of contemporary Czechoslovakia, University of Chicago for the Human Relations Area Files, inc., 1955, Citation 'In January 1947 the Hungarians complained that Magyars were being carried off from Slovakia to Czech lands for forced labor.'
^ Istvan S. Pogany, Righting wrongs in Eastern Europe, Manchester University Press ND, 1997, p.202 Google Books
^ Alfred J. Rieber, Forced migration in Central and Eastern Europe, 1939–1950, Routledge, 2000, p. 50 Google Books – "A presidential decree imposing an obligation on individuals not engaged in useful work to accept jobs served as the basis for this action. As a result, according to documentation in the ministry of foreign affairs of the USSR, approximately 50,000 Hungarians were sent to work in factories and agricultural enterprises in the Czech Republic."
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^ Szalipszki, p. 12
Refers to the country as "widely considered" to be a "home of music".
^ Broughton, pp. 159–167
^ Szabolcsi, The Specific Conditions of Hungarian Musical Development
"Every experiment, made from Hungarian antedecents and on Hungarian soil, to create a conscious musical culture (music written by composers, as different from folk music), had instinctively or consciously striven to develop widely and universally the musical world of the folk song. Folk poetry and folk music were deeply embedded in the collective Hungarian people’s culture, and this unity did not cease to be effective even when it was given from and expression by individual creative artists, performers and poets."
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