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محمد خدابنده الجایتو نشانه های اختصاری
سلطان محمد خدابنده اولجایتو یا الجایتو هشتمین از سلسله ایلخانان



محتویات
زندگینامه

پس از مرگ غازان‌خان به ایلخانی مغول در ایران رسید. الجایتو نام ایرانی محمد خدابنده را برای خود برگزید. الجایتو پس از رسیدن به فرمان‌روایی، دستور به قتل آلافرنک پسر گیخاتو داد. او پسرش ابوسعید را به فرمان‌روایی خراسان فرستاد. بعد از آن رعایت قانون اسلام و یاسای غازانی را الزام کرد. الجایتو شهر سلطانیه را به وجود آورد (این کار را پپشتر پدرش ارغون آغاز کرده بود) و آن را پایتخت خوود قرار داد. او دیلم(گیلان) را که با وجود گذشت پنجاه سال از برقراری ایلخانیان هنوز کاملا مطیع نشده بود فتح کرد، اما سپاهش در این راه متحمل تلفات زیادی شد.


الجایتو نیز همچون ایلخانان پیشین برای کسب حمایت اروپاییان در برابر مملوکان مصر با پاپ نوشت و خواند داشت اما نتوانست در عمل کمکی از آنان برای جنگ با مصریان دریافت کند، سرانجام در سال ۷۱۲ ه.ق./ ۱۳۱۲ م. به تشویق گروهی از امرای ناراضی سوریه رهسپار موصل شد، از فرات گذشت و در کنار فرات، شهر رحبه‌الشام را به محاصره درآورد اما موفق به فتح آن نشد، اهل شهر در برابر مهاجمان سرسختانه مقاومت کردند و چون مغولان متحمل تلفات سنگین گردیدند و نیز آذوقه آنان تمام شده بود دست از محاصره شهر برداشتند و از طریق فرات مراجعت نمودند و بدین ترتیب تاریخ پنجاه ساله مبارزه مغولان و ممالیک بر سر تصرف سوریه پایان یافت.


الجایتو که در کودکی با نام مسیحی نیکولا تعمید یافته بود پس از چندی به آیین بودایی درآمد و سرانجام قبول اسلام کرد و پیرو مذهب ابوحنیفه گردید، ظاهرا مناظره زشتی که در حضور ایلخان بین فقهای مذاهب حنفی و شافعی درگرفت در تغییر مذهب الچایتو به شیعه بی‌تاثیر نبوده است. نمایندگان این مکاتب فقهی آنچنان اتهامات زشت و ناروایی بر یکدیگر وارد ساختند که الجایتو از هردو رنجیده خاطر گشت. پس از مناظره با علامه حلی و نظام‌الدین مراغه‌ای مذهب تشیع را اختیار کرد.الجایتو نخست دستور داد که نام ابوبکر، عمر و عثمان از خطبه‌های نماز جمعه و از سکه‌ها برداشته شود.الجایتو در سن سی و شش سالگی وفات یافت و پیکرش در سلطانیه به خاک سپرده شد.

تاریخ و هنر در دوره الجایتو

الجایتو حامی و مشوق انواع هنرها بود، به اشاره او بود که رشیدالدین نخستین مجلد کتاب تاریخ غازانی را که بررسی تاریخ مغولان از آغاز تا مرگ غازان بود به پایان برد و دست به کار نوشتن مجلد دوم گردید که اولین کوشش برای ثبت تاریخ همه ملل بزرگ اوراسیا بود. اما تصویر الجایتو در درجه اول به عنوان کسی است که دوستدار سازندگی و آبادانی بود.



جستار وابسته

ایلخانان مغول


منبع

↑ تاریخ ایران کمبریج، جلد پنجم از آمدن سلجوقیان تا فروپاشی دولت ایلخانان، جی.‌آ.بویل، انتشارات امیرکبیر، صفحه ۳۷۶
ویکی‌پدیای انگلیسی
تاریخ ایران کمبریج، جلد پنجم از آمدن سلجوقیان تا فروپاشی دولت ایلخانان، جی.‌آ.بویل، انتشارات امیرکبیر

ن • ب • و
شاهان ایلخانی
هولاکو • اباقاخان • تگودار • ارغون‌خان • گیخاتوخان • بایدوخان • غازان‌خان • محمد خدابنده اولجایتو • ابوسعید بهادرخان •

رده‌های صفحه: ایلخانیان بورجیگای تاریخ ایران باستان حاکمان ایلخانی درگذشتگان ۱۳۱۶ (میلادی)درگذشتگان ۶۹۵زادگان ۱۲۸۰ (میلادی)زادگان ۶۵۹مسلمان‌شدگان مغول‌ها
قس عربی
محمد خودابندا أولجایتو (678 هـ 1280 م- 716 هـ/1316 م) ثامن ملوک الإلخانیة. حکم بین عامی 1304 و1316 م. هو ابن حفید هولاکو، وابن أرغون، وشقیق وخلیفة محمود غازان على عرش الإلخانیة. عمدته أمه لدى ولادته مسیحیا باسم نیقولا، تحول إلى الإسلام السنی. ثم اعتنق الإسلام الشیعی على ید أحد علماء المسلمین الشیعة العراقیین . حارب الممالیک إلا أنه لم یستطع أن یتغلب علیهم. قام بإکمال ببناء مدینة سلطانیة التی بدأ أخوه محمود غازان فی بنائها واتخذها عاصمة لدولته.
توفی فی 28 رمضان 703هـ / 16 دیسمبر 1316 وهو فی السادسة والثلاثین من عمره، ودفن فی ضریح بناه لنفسه، بعد أن ترک ذکرى طیبة فی تاریخ إیران، عبر عنها المؤرخ الکبیر ابن الفوطی بقوله: «لم یَلِ من ملوکهم –أی المغول- أعدل منه ولا أکرم، ولا أجمع لصفات الخیر وأسباب الصلاح».
مصادر

المغول.. من الهمجیة إلى الإسلام
سبقه
محمود غازان إلخانات
1304-1316 تبعه
أبو سعید علاء الدنیا والدین
مصادر

^ Ryan, James D. (November 1998). "Christian wives of Mongol khans: Tartar queens and missionary expectations in Asia". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 8 (9): 411–421.‎
تصنیفات: إلخاناتموالید 678 هـموالید 1280وفیات 716 هـوفیات 1316تاریخ إیران مسیحیون تحولوا إلى الإسلام
قس آذربایجانی
Sultan Məhəmməd Olcaytu xan - elxanlı sultanı (1304-1316).
Mündəricat
1 Həyatı
2 Quruculuğu
3 Ailəsı
4 Həmçinin bax
Həyatı

Sultan Məhəmməd Olcaytu xan Arqun xan oğlu 1 mart 1278-ci ildə Marağa şəhərində anadan olmuşdu. Bəzi qaynaqlara görə onun ilk adı Xərbəndə (Eşşəkçi) olub ki, doğulduğu vaxt həyətə girən adam eşşəkçiymiş.
Quruculuğu

Onun hakimiyyəti dövründə Sultaniyyə kimi böyük və gözəl bir şəhər salınmışdı.


Sultan Olcaytu xanın türbəsi, Sultaniyyə şəhəri
Ailəsı

Oğulları
Əbülxeyr oğul
Sultan Əbu Səid Bahadur xan (1316-1335)
Bəstam oğul
Bəyazid oğul
Teyfur oğul
Qızları
Sultan Satıbəy xatun (1339-1340)
Həmçinin bax

Olcaytu Xudabəndə türbəsi
Elxanlılar dövləti
Elxanlılar sülaləsi
Kateqoriyalar: 1 martda doğulanlar1278-ci ildə doğulanlar1316-cı ildə vəfat edənlərÇingizlilərHülakularHökmdarlar
قس انگلیسی
Öljeitü, Oljeitu, Olcayto or Uljeitu, Öljaitu, Ölziit (Mongolian: ᠦᠯᠵᠡᠢᠲᠦ ᠺᠬᠠᠨ, Өлзийт Хаан), also known as Muhammad Khodabandeh (Persian محمد خدابنده - اولجایتو, khodābandeh from Persian meaning the "man of God"; 1280 - December 16, 1316), was the eighth Ilkhanid dynasty ruler in Iran from 1304 to 1316. His name "Ölziit" means "blessed" in the Mongolian language.
He was the son of the Ilkhan ruler Arghun, brother and successor of Mahmud Ghazan, and great-grandson of the Ilkhanate founder Hulagu.
Contents
Islamic conversion



The mausoleum of Öljaitü in Soltaniyeh.
Oljeitu was the son of Arghun's third wife, the Christian Uruk Khatun. Oljeitu was baptised as a Christian and received the name Nicholas after Pope Nicholas IV. In his youth he at first converted to Buddhism but then to Sunni Islam together with his brother Ghazan. He later converted to Shi'a Islam after coming into contact with Shi'a scholars, although another source indicates he converted to Islam through the persuasions of his wife. He changed his first name to the Islamic name Muhammad. Some of his relatives and companions gave him a nickname of Khutabanda. Rashid al-Din wrote that he adopted the name Oljeitu following Yuan emperor Oljeitu Temur enthroned in Dadu. But some Muslim source mentions that it rained when he was born, and delighted Mongols called him Mongolian name Öljeitu (Өлзийт), meaning auspicious.
After succeeding his brother, Öljeitu was greatly under the influence of Shi'a theologians Al-Hilli and Maitham Al Bahrani. In 1306, Oljeitu founded the city of Soltaniyeh, and upon Al-Hilli's death, Oljeitu transferred his teacher's remains from Baghdad to a domed shrine he built in Soltaniyeh. Later, alienated by the factional strife between the Hanafis and the Shafis, Oljeitu changed his sect to Shi'a Islam in 1310, believing it to be the true version of Islam. Mirkhond reportedly claims he started the custom of taking children from Christian and Jewish families to be raised as Muslims, analogous to the later Ottoman system of Devshirme.
In 1309, Öljeitu founded a Dar al-Sayyedah ("Sayyed's lodge") in Shiraz and endowed it with an income of 10,000 Dinars a year.
He died in Soltaniyeh, near Qazvin, in 1316, having reigned for twelve years and nine months. He was succeeded by his son Abu Sa'id. Oljeitu's magnificent tomb in Soltaniyeh remains the best known monument of Ilkhanid Persia.
Relations with Europe

Trade contacts
Trading contacts with European powers were intense during the reign of Öljeitu. The Genoese had first appear in the capital of Tabriz in 1280, and they had a Consul in residence by 1304. Oljeitu also gave full trading rights to the Venetians through a treaty in 1306 (another such treaty with his son Abu Said was signed in 1320). According to Marco Polo, Tabriz was specialized in the production of gold and silk, and Western merchants could purchase precious stones in quantities.
Military alliance
See also: Franco-Mongol alliance


Mongol soldiers at the time of Öljeitü, in Jami al-Tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1305-1306.


Letter of Öljeitu to Philippe le Bel, 1305. In classical Mongolian script, with the seal of the Great Khaan in Mongolian Quadratic Script (Dörböljin Bichig). The huge roll measures 302x50 cm.


Translation of Öljeitu's message by Buscarello de Ghizolfi, on the back of the letter (visible here).


The Mongol Empire, ca. 1300. The gray area is the later Timurid empire.
After his predecessor Arghun, Öljeitu continued diplomatic overtures with the West, and re-stated Mongol hopes for an alliance between the Christian nations of Europe and the Mongols against the Mamluks, even though Öljeitu himself had converted to Islam.
1305 embassy
In April 1305, he sent a Mongol embassy led by Buscarello de Ghizolfi to the French king Philip IV of France, Pope Clement V, and Edward I of England. The letter to Philip IV, the only one to have survived, describes the virtues of concord between the Mongols and the Franks:
"We, Sultan Oljaitu. We speak. We, who by the strength of the Sky, rose to the throne (...), we, descendant of Genghis Khan (...). In truth, there cannot be anything better than concord. If anybody was not in concord with either you or ourselves, then we would defend ourselves together. Let the Sky decide!"
He also explained that internal conflicts between the Mongols were now over:
"Now all of us, Timur Khagan, Tchapar, Toctoga, Togba and ourselves, main descendants of Gengis-Khan, all of us, descendants and brothers, are reconciled through the inspiration and the help of God. So that, from Nangkiyan (China) in the Orient, to Lake Dala our people is united and the roads are open."
—Extract from the letter of Oljeitu to Philip the Fair. French national archives.
This message reassured European nations that the Franco-Mongol alliance, or at least attempts towards such an alliance, had not ceased, even though the Khans had converted to Islam.
1307 embassy
Another embassy was sent to the West in 1307, led by Tommaso Ugi di Siena, an Italian described as Öljeitu's ildüchi ("Sword-bearer"). This embassy encouraged Pope Clement V to speak in 1307 of the strong possibility that the Mongols could remit the Holy Land to the Christians, and to declare that the Mongol embassy from Öljeitu "cheered him like spiritual sustenance". Relations were quite warm: in 1307, the Pope named John of Montecorvino the first Archbishop of Khanbalik and Patriarch of the Orient.
European nations accordingly prepared a crusade, but were delayed. A memorandum drafted by the Grand Master of the Knights Hospitallers Guillaume de Villaret about military plans for a Crusade envisaged a Mongol invasion of Syria as a preliminary to a Western intervention (1307/8). A corps of Frank mangonel specialists is known to have accompanied the Ilkhanid army in the conquest of Herat in 1307. Mongols besieged the castle in Gilan so long. Epidimic and lack of food supply forced Gilans to submit to them. He punished Kartids in Herat as well.
Military operation of 1308
Byzantine Emperor Andronicus II gave a daughter in marriage to Oljeitu and asked ilkhan's assistance against growing power of the Ottomans. In 1305, Oljeitu promised his father in law 40,000 men, and in 1308 dispatched 30,000 men to recover many Byzantine towns in Bithynia and the Ilkhanid army crushed a detachment of Osman I.
1313 embassy
On April 4, 1312, a Crusade was promulgated by Pope Clement V at the Council of Vienne. Another embassy was sent by Oljeitu to the West and to Edward II in 1313. That same year, the French king Philippe le Bel "took the cross", making the vow to go on a Crusade in the Levant, thus responding to Clement V's call for a Crusade. He was however warned against leaving by Enguerrand de Marigny, and died soon after in a hunting accident.
Öljeitu finally launched a last campaign against the Mamluks (1312–13), in which he was unsuccessful, though he reportedly briefly took Damascus. A final settlement with the Mamluks would only be found when Oljeitu's son signed the Treaty of Aleppo with the Mamluks in 1322.
See also

Hazara people
Olcayto
Notes

^ Ryan, James D. (November 1998). "Christian wives of Mongol khans: Tartar queens and missionary expectations in Asia". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 8 (9): 411–421.
^ "Arghun had one of his sons baptized, Khordabandah, the future Öljeitu, and in the Pope's honour, went as far as giving him the name Nicholas", Histoire de l'Empire Mongol, Jean-Paul Roux, p.408
^ Alizadeh, Saeed; Alireza Pahlavani, Ali Sadrnia. Iran: A Chronological History. p. 137.
^ The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith By Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, pg. 197
^ Al Oraibi, Ali (2001). "Rationalism in the school of Bahrain: a historical perspective". In Lynda Clarke. Shīʻite Heritage: Essays on Classical and Modern Traditions. Global Academic Publishing. p. 336.
^ a b c d Stevens, John. The history of Persia. Containing, the lives and memorable actions of its kings from the first erecting of that monarchy to this time; an exact Description of all its Dominions; a curious Account of India, China, Tartary, Kermon, Arabia, Nixabur, and the Islands of Ceylon and Timor; as also of all Cities occasionally mention'd, as Schiras, Samarkand, Bokara, &c. Manners and Customs of those People, Persian Worshippers of Fire; Plants, Beasts, Product, and Trade. With many instructive and pleasant digressions, being remarkable Stories or Passages, occasionally occurring, as Strange Burials; Burning of the Dead; Liquors of several Countries; Hunting; Fishing; Practice of Physick; famous Physicians in the East; Actions of Tamerlan, &c. To which is added, an abridgment of the lives of the kings of Harmuz, or Ormuz. The Persian history written in Arabick, by Mirkond, a famous Eastern Author that of Ormuz, by Torunxa, King of that Island, both of them translated into Spanish, by Antony Teixeira, who liv'd several Years in Persia and India; and now render'd into English.
^ a b Jackson, p.298
^ Mostaert and Cleaves, pp. 56-57, Source
^ Source
^ Jean-Paul Roux, in Histoire de l'Empire Mongol ISBN 2-213-03164-9: "The Occident was reassured that the Mongol alliance had not ceased with the conversion of the Khans to Islam. However, this alliance could not have ceased. The Mamelouks, through their repeated military actions, were becoming a strong enough danger to force Iran to maintain relations with Europe.", p.437
^ Peter Jackson, p.173
^ Peter Jackson, The Mongols and the West, p.171
^ Foltz, p.131
^ Peter Jackson, p.185
^ Peter Jackson, The Mongols and the West, p.315
^ I. Heath, Byzantine Armies: AD 1118–1461, pp. 24–33.
^ Peter Jackson, p.172
^ Jean Richard, "Histoire des Croisades", p.485
^ Richard, p.485
References

Atwood, Christopher P. (2004). The Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. Facts on File, Inc. ISBN 0-8160-4671-9.
(ISBN 0-295-98391-4) page 87
Foltz, Richard, Religions of the Silk Road, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, ISBN 978-0-230-62125-1
Jackson, Peter, The Mongols and the West, Pearson Education, ISBN 0-582-36896-0
Roux, Jean-Paul, Histoire de l'Empire Mongol, Fayard, ISBN 2-213-03164-9

Preceded by
Mahmud Ghazan Ilkhanid Dynasty
1304–1316 Succeeded by
Abu Sa'id

v t e
Mongol Empire (1206–1368)
Politics,
organization
and daily life
Borjigin Organization under Genghis Khan Political divisions Mongol military tactics and organization Society and economy Religion in the Mongol Empire Armeno-Mongol alliance Byzantine–Mongol alliance Franco-Mongol alliance Timeline of the Mongol Empire Timeline of Mongol conquests List of Tatar and Mongol raids against Russian states Mongol and Tatar states in Europe Banner of the Mongols Destruction under the Mongol Empire
Khanates
Yuan Dynasty Ilkhanate Golden Horde Chagatai Khanate see also House of Ogedei
Notable cities
Almalik Avarga Azaq Bukhara Bolghar Karakorum Dadu Majar Maragheh Qarshi Samarkand Sarai Batu Sarai Berke Saray-Jük Shangdu Soltaniyeh Tabriz Ukek Xacitarxan
Campaigns
and battles
Asia
Central
1207 Siberia 1218–1221 Khwarezmia and Eastern Iran 1221–1327 India
East
1205–1209 Western China 1211–1234 Northern China 1211–1234 Manchuria 1235–1276 Southern China 1236 and 1252 Tibet 1231–1260 Korea 1274–1281 Japan
Southeast
1277–1287 Burma 1293 Java 1257, 1284–1288 Vietnam
Middle East
1241–1243 Anatolia 1258 Iraq 1243–1303 Syria 1260, 1301 Palestine
Europe
1237–1240 Georgia and Armenia 1237-1240 (but fighting continues afterward) Chechnya 1229–1236 Volga Bulgaria 1223, 1236–1240 Eastern Europe 1240–41 Poland 1241 Hungary
Prominent
people
Rulers
Genghis Khan Tolui Khan Ögedei Khan Töregene Khatun Güyük Khan Oghul Qaimish Möngke Khan Kublai Khan The Yuan Khagans
Viceroys (khans)
Jochi Batu Khan Orda Khan Berke Toqta Uzbeg Khan Chagatai Khan Duwa Kebek Hulegu Abagha Arghun Ghazan
Military
Sübedei Jebe Mukhulai Negudar Bo'orchu Guo Kan Borokhul Jelme Chuluun Khubilai Aju Bayan Kadan Burundai Nogai Khan
Terms
Titles
Khagan Khan and Khatun Khanum Jinong Khong Tayiji Noyon Darhan
Political and military
Jarlig Örtöö Ordo Pax Mongolica Yoso Huraldai Gerege Mangudai Tümen Kheshig
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Categories: 1280 births1316 deathsIl-Khan emperorsConverts to Islam from BuddhismMongol MuslimsBorjiginPersian history14th-century monarchs in Asia
قس ترکی
Olcaytu (Farsça:Muhammad Hudabende (Tanrıkulu)) (d. 1281 - ö.13 Aralık 1316, Sultaniye, Kazvin yakınları, İran), İlhanlı hükümdarı (1304-1316).
Şiilik ilk kez onun döneminde İran'ın resmi mezhebi ilan edilmiştir.belirtilmeli
İlhanlı hanedanının kurucusu Hulagu'nun torunlarından Argun'un oğluydu. Hıristiyan olarak vaftiz edilmiş ve annesi tarafından Nikolas adı verilmişti. Gençliğinde önce Budist, sonra Sünni Müslüman oldu ve Muhammed Hudabende adını aldı. Yedinci İlhanlı hükümdarı olan ağabeyi Mahmud Gazan'ın ölümü (1304) üzerine iktidarı ele geçirdi. Hükümdarlığı sırasında 1307'de Hazar'daki Gilan eyaleti fethedildi. Herat'ta (bugün Afganistan'da) çıkan bir ayaklanma bastırıldı. 1312'de Memluk topraklarına karşı düzenlenen seferden, Avrupalı hükümdarlardan beklenen yardımın gelmemesi üzerine vazgeçildi.
Olcaytu dinsel inançlarını yaşamı boyunca birkaç kez değiştirmişti. Sünniliği benimsemesine karılarından birinin neden olduğu söylenir. 1307-1308 kışında Hanefi ve Şafiiler arasında dinsel çatışmalar çıktı. Olcaytu bu çatışmalardan etkilenerek Budizmi benimsemeyi düşündüyse de, siyasal açıdan böyle bir şey olanaksızdı. Şii din bilgini İbnü'l-Mutahhar el-Hilli'nin etkisinde kalarak bu mezhebe geçti. 1309'da Irak'ta Ali bin Ebu Talib'in mezarını ziyaret ettikten sonra Şiiliği İran'ın resmi mezhebi ilan etti. Daha önce onu "Hudabende" (Tanrıkulu) olarak anan Sünniler, mezhep değişikliğinden sonra "Harbende" (Eşekkulu)belirtilmeli adını taktılar.
Olcaytu sanatçıları koruyan bir hükümdardı. Kurduğu yeni başkent Sultaniye İlhanlı mimarlığının başyapıtı oldu. Büyük bir dünya tarihi yazan Reșìdeʿd-dìn Fazlullāh'ı ve İranlı şairleri destekledi.
Dipnotlar

Ayrıca bakınız

İlhanlılar İmparatorluğu
Dış kaynaklar

İngilizce Vikipedia "Öljaitü" maddesi (İngilizce) (Erişme:15.7.2010) .
Atwood, Christopher P. (2004). The Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. Facts on File, Inc. ISBN 0-8160-4671-9. (İngilizce)
Roux, Jean-Paul (1993), Histoire de l'Empire Mongol, Paris:Fayard, ISBN 2-213-03164-9 (Fransızca)

Önce gelen:
Mahmud Gazan
(1295 - 1301)
İlhanlılar İmparatorluğu
Hulagu Hanedanı
1304-1316 Sonra gelen:
Ebu Said Bahadır
(1316 - 1335)
Kategoriler: 1281 doğumlular1316 yılında ölenlerMüslüman olanlarİlhanlılar hanları
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